Skip to main content

Full text of "United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works Minority Staff Report The Chain of Environmental Command: How a Club of Billionaires and Their Foundations Control the Environmental Movement and Obama’s EPA"

See other formats


United States Senate 
Committee on Environment and Public Works 

Minority Staff Report 



The Chain of Environmental Command: 




How a Club of Billionaires and Their 
Foundations Control the Environmental 
Movement and Obama's EPA 

July 30, 2014 



Contact: Luke Bolar — Luke Bolar@epw.senate.gov (202) 224-6176 
Cheyenne Steel — Cheyenne Steel@epw.senate.gov (202) 224-6176 
U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (Minority) 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



In his 2010 State of the Union Address, President Obama famously chided the Supreme 
Court for its recent campaign finance decision by proclaiming, "With all due deference to the 
separation of powers, the Supreme Court reversed a century of law to open the floodgates for 
special interests - including foreign corporations - to spend without limit in our elections." 1 In 
another speech he further lamented, "There aren't a lot of functioning democracies around the 
world that work this way where you can basically have millionaires and billionaires bankrolling 
whoever they want, however they want, in some cases undisclosed. What it means is ordinary 
Americans are shut out of the process." 2 

These statements are remarkable for their blatant hypocrisy and obfuscation of the fact 
that the President and his cadre of wealthy liberal allies and donors embrace the very tactics he 
publically scorned. In reality, an elite group of left wing millionaires and billionaires, which this 
report refers to as the "Billionaire's Club," who directs and controls the far-left environmental 
movement, which in turn controls major policy decisions and lobbies on behalf of the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Even more unsettling, a dominant organization in this 
movement is Sea Change Foundation, a private California foundation, which relies on funding 
from a foreign company with undisclosed donors. In turn, Sea Change funnels tens of millions 
of dollars to other large but discreet foundations and prominent environmental activists who 
strive to control both policy and politics. 

This report examines in detail the mechanisms and methods of a far-left environmental 
machine that has been erected around a small group of powerful and active millionaires and 
billionaires who exert tremendous sway over a colossal effort. Although startling in its findings, 
the report covers only a small fraction of the amount of money that is being secreted and moved 
around. It would be virtually impossible to examine this system completely given the enormity 
of this carefully coordinated effort and the lack of transparency surrounding it. 

The failure to openly acknowledge this force and the silence of the media with whom 
they coordinate further emphasize the fact that until today, the Billionaire's Club operated in 
relative obscurity hidden under the guise of "philanthropy." The scheme to keep their efforts 
hidden and far removed from the political stage is deliberate, meticulous, and intended to 
mislead the public. While it is uncertain why they operate in the shadows and what they are 
hiding, what is clear is that these individuals and foundations go to tremendous lengths to avoid 
public association with the far-left environmental movement they so generously fund. 

The report attempts to decipher the patterns of "charitable giving." Often the wealthiest 
foundations donate large sums to intermediaries - sometimes a pass through and sometimes a 
fiscal sponsor. The intermediary then funnels the money to other 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4) 
organizations that the original foundation might also directly support. The report offers theories 



1 Bill Mears, Chief justice chides State of the Union as 'political pep rally', CNN, March 11, 2010, 7:33 A.M., 
http://www.cnn.coir^2010/POLITICS/03/10/obama.supremecourt (last visited July 27, 2014). 

2 Ben Wolfgang, Obama weighs in for campaign finance limits, THE WASHINGTON TIMES, Oct. 8, 2013, 
http://www.washingtontimes.eom/blog/inside-politics/2013/oct/8/obama-wei (last 
visited July 27, 2014). 



i 



that could explain this bizarre behavior, but at its core, the Billionaire's Club is not, and 
seemingly does not, want to be transparent about the groups they fund and how much they are 
supporting them. 

In advancing their cause, these wealthy liberals fully exploit the benefits of a generous 
tax code meant to promote genuine philanthropy and charitable acts, amazingly with little 
apparent Internal Revenue Service scrutiny. Instead of furthering a noble purpose, their tax 
deductible contributions secretly flow to a select group of left wing activists who are complicit 
and eager to participate in the fee-for-service arrangement to promote shared political goals. 
Moreover, the financial arrangement provides significant insulation to these wealthy elite from 
the incidental damage they do to the U.S. economy and average Americans. 

Through these arrangements, the Billionaire's Club gains access to a close knit network 
of likeminded funders, environmental activists, and government bureaucrats who specialize in 
manufacturing phony "grassroots" movements and in promoting bogus propaganda disguised as 
science and news to spread an anti-fossil energy message to the unknowing public. Not only is 
the system incredibly sophisticated, but the Club's attorneys and accountants have mastered the 
loopholes and gray areas in the tax code, which enable them to obtain a full tax benefit, even 
when the recipient of the grant is not recognized as a public charity, and even if the money 
indirectly and impermissibly funds political activities. 

In order to understand how the Billionaire's Club colludes with the far-left 
environmental activists and government officials, the report articulates the fundamental 
framework that governs these relationships. Essentially, the far-left environmental machine is 
comprised of hundreds of nonprofit organizations. Each entity is set up according to its 
designated purpose and is either a private foundation or a public charity, depending on where the 
cog fits in this well-designed wheel. 

The facilitators - both organizations and individuals who bring together the private 
foundations and the activists - are a key component of the movement's success. The report 
identifies three organizations that serve prominent roles as facilitators: the Environmental 
Grantmakers Association, the Democracy Alliance, and the Divest/Invest movement. There is 
also a narrow set of individuals whose careers are part of the fabric of the far-left environmental 
movement and who serve as coordinators and intermediaries between the Billionaire's Club and 
the activist groups. 

The ultimate recipients of donations from the Billionaire's Club work in tandem with 
wealthy donors to maximize the value of their tax deductible donations and leverage their 
combined resources to influence elections and policy outcomes. Often, they lobby on behalf of 
the EPA and advance policy positions important to the agency, which is statutorily prohibited 
from lobbying on its own behalf. But most importantly, they serve as the face of the 
environmental movement and present themselves as non-partisan benevolent charities to a public 
not aware of the secretive backroom deals and transfers. 

The Billionaire's Club achieves many of its successes through the "capture" of key 
employees at EPA. These "successes" are often at the expense of farmers, miners, roughnecks, 



ii 



small businesses, and families. This report proves that the Obama EPA has been deliberately 
staffed at the highest levels with far-left environmental activists who have worked hand-in-glove 
with their former colleagues. The green-revolving door at EPA has become a valuable asset for 
the far-left and their wealthy donors. In addition to providing insider access to important policy 
decisions, it appears activists now at EPA also funnel government money through grants to their 
former employers and colleagues. The report tracks the amount of government aid doled out to 
activist groups and details a troubling disregard for ethics by certain high powered officials. 

The report further describes what the Billionaire's Club is purchasing with their fortunes. 
It reveals that activists are skilled at creating and pushing out propaganda disguised as science 
and news. For example, both the Park Foundation and the Schmidt Family Foundation have 
financed questionable scientists to produce anti-fracking research, which the Huffington Post, 
Mother Jones, and Climate Desk - all grant recipients themselves - eagerly report on. 

The Billionaire's Club has also perfected the craft of assembling and funding fake 
grassroots movements to assist in ballot measures and other state initiatives. The efforts in New 
York and Colorado to ban fracking are prime examples. The report explains how these faux 
grassroots efforts are actually funded by foundations outside the states they seek to influence. 
All these groups are similarly utilizing their platform to attack jobs, economic development, and 
infrastructure projects across the country. 

The Energy Foundation is a quintessential example of a pass through frequently 
employed by the Billionaire's Club. Energy Foundation receives money from several key 
foundations and redirects it to activists. In doing so, they are providing two services: distance 
between the donor and the activist, and enhancing the clout of the donors as their individual 
influence is maximized by pooling resources. One of the major funders of the Energy 
Foundation is Sea Change, which has gone to great lengths to hide the source of its money. This 
is especially concerning in light of recent revelations that environmental activists do not appear 
to be morally conflicted over where their money comes from - so long as it supports their goals. 

The Billionaire's Club is also adept at converting charitable donations into political 
outcomes by taking advantage of loopholes in the tax code. Numerous examples raise questions 
as to whether the charitable donations are indirectly supporting political activity. For example, 
in many cases they fund a 501(c)(3), like the Energy Foundation or the League of Conservation 
Voters, which then transfers large sums to an affiliated 501(c)(4), which can engage in political 
activity. The affiliated groups often share office space, staff, and even board members. In the 
case of the 501(c)(4) Green Tech Action Fund, which received donations from the Energy 
Foundation, and in turn, donated funds to 501(c)(4) far-left environmental activist organizations. 

The evidence provided in this report highlights the lengths the far-left environmental 
movement goes to hide sources of funding and to disguise their actions - bought and paid for by 
millionaires and billionaires - as charitable acts in service of their fellow man. This report 
outlines a sampling of the individuals, foundations, and practices that are active in our political 
system today, shedding light on just a fraction of the activities of the far-left environmental 
machine that undermines American free enterprise and resource security. 



iii 



FINDINGS: 



• The "Billionaire's Club," an exclusive group of wealthy individuals, directs the far-left 
environmental movement. The members of this elite liberal club funnel their fortunes 
through private foundations to execute their personal political agenda, which is centered 
around restricting the use of fossil fuels in the United States. (Pg. 6) 

• The Billionaire's Club has established a dozen prominent private foundations with huge 
sums of money at their disposal to spend on environmental causes. (Pg. 9) 

• Members of the Billionaire's Club also donate directly to 501(c)(3) public charities. 
Generally, the public charity is considered the preferred status under the tax code, based 
on the greater tax benefits and protections on donor disclosures. (Pg. 10) 

• Public charities attempt to provide the maximum amount of control to their donors 
through fiscal sponsorships, which are a legally suspect innovation unique to the left, 
whereby the charity actually sells its nonprofit status to a group for a fee. (Pg. 12) 

• Nearly all of the public charities discussed in this report have an affiliated 501(c)(4) that 
engages in activities designed to influence elections and have no restrictions on their 
lobbying efforts. The funding of a 501(c)(4) by a 501(c)(3) affiliates is provocative in 
light of the legal restrictions on public charities from participating in political 
campaigning, either directly or indirectly, while permitting a 501(c)(4) to significantly 
engage in campaign activities. (Pg. 14) 

• Members of the Billionaire's Club put a premium on access to the complex 
environmental infrastructure that has evolved to leverage substantial assets towards 
achieving defined policy outcomes. (Pg. 16) 

• Environmental Grantmakers Association (EGA) is a place where wealthy donors meet 
and coordinate the distribution of grants to advance the environmental movement. EGA 
encourages the use of prescriptive grantmaking. It is a secretive organization, refusing to 
disclose their membership list to Congress. (Pg. 16) 

• Democracy Alliance (DA), a facilitator for wealthy donors seeking to advance a broader 
far-left agenda, does not disclose the details of any transaction it facilitates, and its 
members and donor-recipients cannot speak publically about the organization. (Pg. 18) 

• Environmental activist groups are well aligned with the greater far-left agenda. One of 
DA's acclaimed successes in the last year includes President Obama's executive actions 
on climate change. (Pg. 20) 

• Many far-left environmental foundations and groups have pledged to divest in fossil fuels 
and invest in renewable projects as well as "philanthropy." (Pg. 22) 



iv 



There is a narrow set of individuals whose careers are part of the fabric of the far-left 
environmental movement. These individuals exercise outsized influence regarding the 
distribution of funds. (Pg. 23) 

Public charity activist groups propagate the false notion that they are independent, 
citizen-funded groups working altruistically. In reality, they work in tandem with 
wealthy donors to maximize the value of the donors' tax deductible donations and 
leverage their combined resources to influence elections and policy outcomes, with a 
focus on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (Pg. 25) 

Far-left environmental activists, while benefiting from nonprofit status, essentially sell a 
product to wealthy foundations who are seeking to drive policy and political outcomes. 
(Pg.38) 

The Obama Administration has installed an audacious green-revolving door among 
senior officials at EPA, which has become a valuable asset for the environmental 
movement and its wealthy donors. (Pg. 28) 

In one example, senior EPA officials planned to use Michelle DePass's position on the 
Board of Directors of EGA, her eminent employment at EPA, and her relationship with 
former EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson, to enhance her influence with EGA. (Pg. 29) 

Former far-left environmentalists working at EPA funnel government money through 
grants to their former employers and colleagues, often contributing to the bottom line of 
environmental activist groups. (Pg. 34) 

Under President Obama, EPA has given more than $27 million in taxpayer-funded grants 
to major environmental groups. Notably, the Natural Resources Defense Council and 
Environmental Defense Fund - two key activists groups with significant ties to senior 
EPA officials - have collected more than $1 million in funding each. (Pg. 34) 

EPA Region 2 Administrator Judith Enck appears to be inappropriately and personally 
involved in the allocation of EPA grants to favored groups. Enck is also the subject of an 
inquiry led by the EPA Office of Inspector General. (Pg. 35) 

EPA also gives grants to lesser-known extreme groups. For example, the Louisiana 
Bucket Brigade received hundreds of thousands of grants under former Administrator 
Lisa Jackson despite challenges by state regulators over the use of such grants. (Pg. 33) 

Some of the most valued services activists provide the Billionaire's Club includes 
promulgation of propaganda, which creates an artificial echo chamber; appearance of a 
faux grassroots movement; access to nimble and transient groups under fiscal 
sponsorship arrangements; distance/anonymity between donations made by well-known 
donors and activities of risky activist groups; and above all - the ability to leverage tens 
of millions of dollars in questionable foreign funding. (Pg. 38) 



Foundations finance research to justify desired predetermined policy outcome. The 
research is then reported on by a news outlet, oftentimes one that is also supported by the 
same foundation, in an effort to increase visibility. In one example, a story reporting on a 
Park Foundation-supported anti-fracking study was reproduced by a Park-funded news 
organization through a Park-funded media collaboration where it was then further 
disseminated on Twitter by the maker of Park-backed anti-fracking movies. (Pg. 41) 

Another service provided to the Billionaire's Club is the manufacturing of an artificial 
grassroots movement where it is not the citizen's interest that drives the movement; 
rather, it is part of a well-funded national strategy. (Pg. 43) 

In New York and Colorado, a pseudo grassroots effort to attack hydraulic fracturing has 
germinated from massive amounts of funding by the NY-based Park Foundation, as well 
as CA-based Schmidt Family Foundation and Tides Foundation. (Pg. 44) 

The same California and New York-based foundations behind the New York anti- 
fracking efforts have shifted to Colorado through two coalitions - Local Control 
Colorado and Frack Free Colorado. (Pg. 45) 

Bold Nebraska is another example of faux grassroots where a purportedly local 
organization is, in fact, an arm of the Billionaire's Club. It is nothing more than a shield 
for wealthy and distant non-Nebraskan interests who seek to advance a political agenda 
without drawing attention to the fact that they, too, are outsiders with little connection to 
the state. (Pg. 50) 

The Energy Foundation is a pass through public charity utilized by the most powerful 
EGA members to create the appearance of a more diversified base of support, to shield 
them from accountability, and to leverage limited resources by hiring dedicated 
energy/environment staff to handle strategic giving. (Pg. 51) 

The Energy Foundation is the largest recipient of grants from the foreign-funded Sea 
Change Foundation; yet, it appears the Energy Foundation attempts to hide donations 
from Sea Change, as it is not listed as one of Energy Foundation's partners. (Pg. 53) 

The circumstances surrounding the flow of money from 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4) groups, 
and the likelihood of lax oversight, raises questions as to whether 501(c)(3) nonprofit 
foundations and charities are indirectly funding political activities. (Pg. 56) 

501(c)(4) Green Tech Action Fund receives millions of dollars from green 501(c)(3) 
organizations, then distributes the funds to other 501(c)(4) groups that donate to political 
campaigns. (Pg. 57) 

Many of the large environmental organizations form both 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4) 
nonprofits that are publically advertised as separate and independent entities. In reality, 
they are closely associated groups that transfer money from the Billionaire's Club to 
nonprofits, and eventually into political campaigns. (Pg. 58) 



vi 



Between 2010 and 2012, Tides Foundation gave over $10 million to Tides Center, and 
Tides Center gave over $39 million to Tides Foundation. It is unclear what purpose the 
transfer of funds between these two organizations serves, other than obscuring the money 
trail. (Pg. 60) 

Tides Center is a fiscal sponsor to over 200 groups, which are subject to Tides Center's 
oversight and direction in important aspects that include forming a governing board, 
managing payroll, and monitoring risk. (Pg. 60). 

The New York-based Sustainable Markets Foundation is also a significant fiscal sponsor 
and receives vast sums from the Billionaire's Club. It only exists on paper and has zero 
public presence - no website, no Facebook page, no Twitter account, nothing. (Pg. 64) 

The Billionaire's Club knowingly collaborates with questionable offshore funders to 
maximize support for the far-left environmental movement. (Pg. 65) 

The little information available on Sea Change is limited to a review of its IRS Form-990 
for 2010 and 201 1 as its 2012 form is not public, and a sparsely worded website - listing 
solely the logo and a three-sentence mission statement. (Pg. 65) 

Klein Ltd., an overseas company contributing tens of millions to organizations dedicated 
to abolishing the use of affordable fossil fuels through a U.S. private foundation is highly 
problematic. This is only compounded by the fact that it is deliberately and completely 
lacking in transparency - having no website and withholding its funders. (Pg. 68) 



vii 



Contents 

INTRODUCTION 1 

I. Legal Framework of Far-Left Environmental Movement 3 

a. 501(c)(3) Private Foundations and Public Charities 3 

b. The 501(c)(4) 8 

II. The Billionaire's Club: Leveraging their Investment 11 

a. The Ties that Bind: Key Relationships Between Facilitators, Donors, 
and Activists 11 

b. The Facilitators: Key Environmental Activists 18 

c. The Face of the Environmental Movement: Public Charity Activists .21 

III. The Bureaucrats: How the Obama EPA is Deeply Intertwined with the 
Billionaire's Club and their Far-left Environmental Activists 23 

a. EPA's Green Revolving Door 23 

b. The Obama EPA Helps to Fund the Far-Left Environmental Groups 
29 

c. Questionable Behavior by Regional Administrator Judith Enck 31 

IV. Billionaire's Club in Action: Case Studies of Services Rendered 33 

a. Activists Groups Provide Billionaire's Club with Propaganda 33 

b. Activist Groups Provide Billionaire's Club with Artificial Grassroots 
Movements 38 

c. Converting Charitable Donations into Political Outcomes 49 

d. Fiscal Sponsorships Provide the Billionaire's Club with Access to 
Nimble and Transient Groups and also Provide Distance from their Hired 
Hands 54 

e. The Billionaire's Club Collaborating with Shady Foreign Funders....60 

CONCLUSION 67 

APPENDIX A: TOP FOUNDATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL GIVING 68 
APPENDIX B: ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS 73 



viii 



INTRODUCTION 



The "Billionaire's Club," an exclusive group of wealthy individuals, directs the far-left 
environmental movement. The members of this elite liberal club funnel their fortunes through 
private foundations to execute their personal political agenda, which is centered around 
restricting the use of fossil fuels primarily in the United States. 

This report demonstrates that, far from pursuing philanthropic goals, the money from this 
elite group is funneled to like-minded activists in a defined fee-for-service arrangement. Fiscal 
sponsorships, a legally suspect vehicle for charitable funding, allows new and transient groups 
the ability to receive foundation funding while quickly mobilizing in local communities to 
provide rapid response services where their ability to affect public change is greatest. 

The Billionaire's Club has formed exclusive networks and alliances - in and out of the 
federal government - to maximize the effectiveness of its "investment." One such outfit is the 
Environmental Grantmakers Association - command central of the environmental movement. It 
is also very secretive, refusing to disclose their membership list to Congress. The wealthy liberal 
elite have also formed public charities, including the Energy Foundation, the Climate Works 
Foundation, the Sustainable Markets Foundation, and the Tides Center, to coordinate and 
leverage their expenditures. Moreover, efforts like the recently exposed Democracy Alliance 
and the Divest/Invest Movement have pooled hundreds of millions of dollars in collective 
resources to funnel funds towards chosen activists. 

The Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, Environmental Defense Fund, 
League of Conservation Voters, Center for Biological Diversity, National Wildlife Federation, 
World Wildlife Fund, and other environmental activist organizations serve as the face of the 
movement and provide cover for where the secretive foundations direct their resources. 

Klein Ltd., a foreign corporation, has risen to prominence in the far-left environmental 
community - doling out tens of millions to favored charities via Sea Change Foundation. In fact, 
none of this foreign corporation's funding is disclosed in any way. This is clearly a deceitful 
way to hide the source of millions of dollars that are active in our system, attempting to effect 
political change. 

Finally, the success of this movement is hinged on direct access to policy makers who are 
loyal to the cause and work to implement the far-left environmental agenda when they occupy 
government positions. Relationships with policy makers provide the opportunity for the 
Billionaire's Club and activists to change public policy and obtain government grants. The 
Committee demonstrates how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under President 
Obama's watch has installed an audacious green-revolving door, which has become a valuable 
asset for the environmental movement and the Billionaire's Club. 

The common goal of this network appears to be the explosion of stringent restrictions on 
energy access and a reformation of the capitalist system. This goal was clearly articulated by 
Billionaire Club member, Nat Simons, President and Founder of Sea Change Foundation: 



1 



[T]o get it done, quickly, is going to take a Herculean effort from all sides. 
Because it's not really a question of whether we move to a low carbon economy. I 
think it's clear we're moving there... the question is how quickly. The role of 
philanthropy is really to facilitate that process. 

While this report sheds significant light on the who and the how, the truly outrageous 
nature of these complex arrangements are only understood by exploring the why. This report 
articulates several possible reasons for the convoluted and secretive structure of the far-left 
environmental movement; yet, at the end of the day, we are still asking - why? Why are 
members of the Billionaire's Club going to such extreme lengths to hide their generous support 
of supposed charitable causes? 



2 



I. Legal Framework of Far-Left Environmental Movement 

The far-left environmental movement is comprised of hundreds of nonprofit 
organizations. Each entity is strategically set up according to its designated purpose in the 
funding chain. This section lays out the most prevalent forms used by a group of wealthy 
individuals choreographing the far-left environmental movement, namely the 501(c)(3) and 
501(c)(4) nonprofits, as well as fiscal sponsorship arrangements available for groups who have 
not obtained nonprofit status from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). 

a. 501(c)(3) Private Foundations and Public Charities 

Members of the Billionaire's Club who want a seat at the environmental policy table have 
the option to fund a 501(c)(3) private foundation or public charity. Importantly, by funding a 
501(c)(3), they obtain the added benefit of making contributions on a tax deductible basis. In 
2010, tax deductions for charitable contributions to 501(c)(3) organizations resulted in an 
estimated $40 billion loss to federal revenue. 3 While the rules for disclosing donations received 
by private foundations and public charities differ, both organizations are required to file an 
annual IRS 990-form to maintain its 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status. Moreover, both a public 
charity and a private foundation must disclose contributions to other entities if the amount 
exceeds $5,000. 4 

In exchange for the generous tax benefits donors receive, limits exist on 501(c)(3) 
activities. For instance, they must not directly or indirectly participate in political campaigns. 5 
The IRS clearly articulates the restriction on political activities, advising that "501(c)(3) 
organizations are absolutely prohibited from directly or indirectly participating in, or intervening 
in, any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for elective public 
office." 6 Breaching this provision may result in denial or revocation of tax-exempt status and the 
imposition of certain excise taxes. 7 Further, 501(c)(3)s are limited in their ability to lobby, 8 as 
they cannot devote more than an "insubstantial" (i.e. between 5 and 10%) portion of their 
resources to lobbying activities. 9 



3 Jane G. Gravelle and Molly F. Sherlock, Tax Issues Relating to Charitable Contributions and Organizations, 
CONG. RESEARCH SERVICES, Jan. 29, 2013, page 1, http://ybcf.pgdc.com/pgdc/crs-reports-tax-issues-relating- 
charitable-contributions-and-organizations (last visited July 27, 2014). 

4 id. 

5 The Restriction of Political Campaign Intervention by Section 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Organizations, INTERNAL 
Revenue Service, http://www.irs. gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Charitable-Organizations/The-Restriction-of- 
Political-Campaign-Intervention-by-Section-501(c)(3)-Tax-Exempt-Organizations (last visited July 24, 2014). 

6 IRS, The Restriction of Political Campaign Intervention by Section 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Organizations, 
http://www.irs. go v/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Charitable-Organizations/The-Restriction-of-Political-Campaign- 
Intervention-by-Section-501(c)(3)-Tax-Exempt-Organizations (last visited July 29, 2014). 

"id. 

8 IRS, Tax Information for Charities & Other Non-Profits http://www.irs. go v/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Lobbying 
Organizations may, however, involve themselves in issues of public policy without the activity being considered as 
lobbying. For example, organizations may conduct educational meetings, prepare and distribute educational 
materials, or otherwise consider public policy issues in an educational manner without jeopardizing their tax-exempt 
status. 

9 Hurwit & Associates, Lobbying & 501(c)(4) Primer, http://www.hurwitassociates.com/p_l_lobby_primer.pdf (last 
visited July 27, 2014). 



3 



L Private Foundations 

Typically, the most wealthy far-left individuals have elected to fund their own 501(c)(3) 
private foundation. 10 In fact, each member of the Billionaire's Club has a private foundation that 
is extremely politically motivated and holds considerable sway over the environmental 
community. By creating a private foundation, they can make a substantial contribution to their 
foundation and enjoy a sizable tax break of up to 30% of their adjusted gross income (AGI), 
while the foundation itself does not pay a tax on this income. 11 Private foundations must 
disclose all donors on its IRS Form 990-PF, and so starting a private foundation allows the donor 
to associate his or her family name with the foundation's work. 12 

As depicted in the chart below, there are roughly a dozen prominent private foundations 
created by the Billionaire's Club that have huge sums of money at their disposal to spend on 
environmental causes. Among this list, the Committee focused on several extremely active 
private foundations, including the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, 13 the William and Flora Hewlett 
Foundation, 14 the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 15 the Schmidt Family Foundation, 16 the 
Sea Change Foundation, 17 the Park Foundation, 18 and the Marisla Foundation. 19 



Comparing Public Charities and Private Foundations, FOUNDATION SOURCE, 2012, 
http://www.foundationsource.com/ks/Com (last visited July 27, 

2014). 

11 What is a 501(c)(3)?, Foundation Group, http://501c3.org/what-is-a-501c3 (last visited July 24, 2014). 

12 Public Disclosure and Availability of Exempt Organizations Returns and Applications: Requirements for Private 
Foundations, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, http://www.irs. gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Public-Disclosure-and- 
Availability-of-Exempt-Organizations-Returns-and-Applications:-Requirements-for-Private-Foun (last 
updated Mar. 28, 2014). 

13 History, The Rockefeller Brothers Fund, http://www.rbf.org/content/history (last visited July 28, 2014). (The 
fund was created by the sons of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. -John D. Ill, Nelson, Winthrop, Laurence, and David.) 

14 William and Flora Hewlett and the Hewlett Foundation, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, 
http://www.hewlett.org/about-us/hewlett-family-history (last visited July 28, 2014). (The foundation was created by 
William Hewlett, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard, along with his wife and eldest son, from the Hewlett's "vast 
personal wealth."). 

15 Our history, The David and Lucile Packard Found., http://www.packard.org/about-the- 
FOUNDATION/OUR-HISTORY (last visited July 28, 2014). (The foundation was created by David Packard, co-founder 
of Hewlett Packard, along with his wife.). 

16 About, The Schmidt Family Found., http://tsffoundation.org/about/ (last visited July 24, 2014). (The foundation 
was created by Eric Schmidt, a software engineer, who previously served as CEO of Google, where he is the current 
executive chairman.). 

17 Sea Change, http://www.seachange.org (last visited July 28, 2014). (The foundation is funded by Nat Simons, 
son of Renaissance Technologies founder James Simons.) 

18 PARK FOUND, http://www.parkfoundation.org/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

19 Laurie Bennett, Getty Oil Heir Quietly Supports Democrats, FORBES (July 30, 2012, 9:54 AM), 
http://www.forbes.com/sites/lauriebennett/2012/07/30/getty-oil-heir-quietly-supports-democrats. 



4 



Billionaire's Club Private Foundations 



Foundation 


Total Assets -2012 


David and Lucile Packard Foundation 


$6,299,952,716 


Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation 


$5,697,258,026 


Heinz Family Foundation 


$117,095,904 


Marisla Foundation 


$51,482,397 


Park Foundation 


$366,405,008 


Rockefeller Brothers Foundation 


$800,956,943 


Schmidt Family Foundation 


$46,542,559 


Sea Change Foundation 


$124,350,435* 


Walton Family Foundation 


$1,999,066,369 


William and Flora Hewlett Foundation 


$7,735,371,139 



* Assets from most recent IRS Form-990-PF available (201 1) 



As a private foundation director/trustee, the donor can manage and invest the funds and 
select the eventual charitable recipient over a period of years. 20 Private foundations also give the 
donor the greatest amount of discretion over how funds are distributed and used. The private 
foundations discussed in this report generally do not donate in an altruistic or philanthropic 
manner. Instead, they employ a "prescriptive grantmaking" technique wherein they seek 
beneficiaries whose actions and work fit the agenda of the foundation and its donors. 21 
Prescriptive grantmaking foundations impose a very tightly defined strategic plan for proposals 
that match the defined formula. 22 Examples of prescriptive grantmaking by some of the 
Billionaire's Club private foundations include a $50,000 grant from the Park Foundation to the 
New York Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) for "continuation of its widespread public 
education campaign on the issue of gas drilling in New York;" 23 a $200,000 grant from the 
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation to the Union of Concerned Scientists "for coal retirement 
and removing market barriers to renewable energy projects;" 24 as well as a $79,690 grant from 
the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to The Nature Conservancy "to support efforts to 
protect the wild salmon ecosystems of Alaska's Bristol Bay region." 25 

it Public Charities 

The Billionaire's Club also donates directly to 501(c)(3) public charities. Generally, the 
public charity is considered the preferred status under the tax code, based on the greater tax 
benefits and protections on donor disclosures. A donor's tax deductible limit for a charitable 



Kurt Peterson, Melissa Martin & Karen Goldberg, Wealth of Knowledge - Spring 2012 - A Primer on Private 
Foundations, Eisner Amper Accountants & Advisors (Apr. 16, 2012), 

http://www.eisneramper.comAVealth_of_Knowledge/private-foundation-0412.aspx (last visited July 27, 2014). 

21 Joel J. Orosz, Programming Director, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Speech at the Council of Michigan Foundations' 

23 rd Annual Conference, The Montana Community Foundation 2, 

https://community.mtcf.org/NetCommunity/Document.Doc?id=23 (last visited July 24, 2014). 

22 Id. 

23 Park Found., IRS form 990, 2012. 

24 William and Flora Hewlett Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

25 Gordon and Betty Moore Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 



5 



donation to a public charity is much higher than a private 
foundation, up to 50% of their AGI. 26 In order to qualify as a 
public charity, one-third of donations must come from relatively 
small donors, from other public charities, or from the 
government. 27 For individual donors, only $5,000 of an 
individual donation can count towards the one-third public 
funding requirement. 28 However, if the public charity receives a 
grant from the government, 100% of those funds count towards 
the one-third public funding requirement. 29 

Unlike a private foundation, public charities are not required to disclose donors, creating 
an opportunity for the wealthy to make anonymous contributions to pay for 'charitable 
activities.' 30 Indeed, anonymity makes donating to a public charity highly attractive to donors 
wishing to remain unknown. According to Drummond Pike, founder of the Tides Foundation 
and its related nonprofit groups, "Anonymity is very important to most of the people we work 
with." 31 

A public charity may be characterized as a foundation or an otherwise nonprofit 
organization. Some of the most active public charities in the far-left environmental sphere are 
characterized as foundations. These include the Tides Foundation, Energy Foundation, 
ClimateWorks Foundation and the Sustainable Markets Foundation. Other public charities 
represent themselves as activists, such as the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Sierra 
Club, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), League of Conservation Voters (LCV), Greenpeace, 
Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), National Wildlife Federation (NWF), and the World 
Wildlife Fund (WWF), which act as the public face of the environmental movement. 



Top Public Charity Foundations 



Organization 


Total Assets - 2012 


ClimateWorks Foundation 


$219,543,071 


Energy Foundation 


$32,212,733 


Pew Charitable Trusts 


$735,245,419 


Sustainable Markets Foundation 


$2,056,007* 


Tides Foundation 


$141,039,613 



* Assets from most recent IRS Form-990 available (201 1) 



"Anonymity is very 
important to most of the 
people we work with." 

- Drummond Pike of 
Tides Foundation 



Greg McRay, Public Charity vs. Private Foundation, FOUNDATION GROUP (May 26, 2009), 
http://501c3.org/blog/public-charity-vs-private-foundation. 

27 What is a 501(c)(3)?, supra note 11. 

28 26 C.R.F. § 1.509(a)-3 (2012). 

29 Section 501(c)(3) Organizations, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, http://www.irs.gov/publications/p557/ch03.html 
(last visited July 24, 2014). 

30 Exempt Organizations Annual Reporting Requirements-Public Disclosure and Availability of Exempt 
Organizations Returns and Applications, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE 4, http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs- 
tege/eo_disclosure_faqs.pdf (last visited July 11, 2013). 

31 Steve Baldwin, Who Funds the Radical Left in America?, WESTERN JOURNALISM, 

http://www.westernjournalism.com/exclusive-investigative-reports/who-funds-the-radical-left-in-ameri (last 
visited July 24, 2014). 



6 



Top Public Charity Activist Organizations 



Organization 


Total Assets - 2012 


American Lung Association 


$31,049,040 


BlueGreen Alliance Foundation 


$3,179,681 


Center for American Progress 


$50,042,142 


Center for Biological Diversity 


$12,282,335 


Earthjustice 


$58,945,673 


Environmental Defense Fund 


$208,751,208 


Environmental Integrity Project 


$1,744,942 


Greenpeace Fund 


$15,313,140 


League of Conservation Voters Education Fund 


$7,545,946 


National Audubon Society 


$450,334,791 


National Wildlife Federation 


$66,456,891 


Natural Resources Defense Council 


$268,165,564 


Nature Conservancy 


$6,168,924,112 


Sierra Club Foundation 


$98,974,748 


Union of Concerned Scientists 


$8,195,448 


World Wildlife Fund 


$450,932,452 



Public charities also attempt to provide the maximum amount of control to their donors 
through the creation of fiscal sponsorships. A novel innovation unique to the left is the 
proliferation of a fiscal sponsor relationship, whereby the charity actually sells its nonprofit 
status to a group for a fee. Through this arrangement, the fiscal sponsor serves as the official 
recipient of charitable donations for an organization unrecognized by the IRS. 32 A fiscal 
sponsorship arrangement is usually not overly obvious, and is typically only revealed when a 
potential donor inquires about receiving a tax break for its donation. 33 The sponsorship fees 
range from 5% to 14% of total revenue. 34 In addition to the generous tax benefit, sponsors often 
provide payroll, employee benefits, office space, publicity, fundraising assistance, and training 
services to the sponsored organization. 35 This allows donors to make tax deductible 
contributions to support a narrowly defined project, with the full tax benefit enjoyed by a public 
charity, and no donor disclosure. 

The fiscal sponsor relationship is built on very shaky legal grounds. The only 
precedential guidance issued by the IRS came from a revenue ruling issued over 45 years ago - 
well before this practice began in earnest. Moreover, to the extent the IRS recognizes the 
validity of such a relationship, it should be in the context of "specific short term projects] - such 
as providing assistance following a local disaster, or construction of a new playground or dog 



What is a Donor-Advised Fund (DAF)?, NATIONAL PHILANTHROPIC TRUST, http://www.nptrust.org/what-is-a- 
donor-advised-fund (last visited July 24, 2014). 

33 Trust for Conservation Innovation, Fiscal Sponsorship; The State of a Growing Service, 
http://www.tides.org/fileadmin/user/pdf/WP_TCIFSGrowingService.pdf (last visited July 24, 2014). 



ib Jonathan Spack, How Fiscal Sponsorship Nurtures Nonprofits, COMMUNITIES & BANKING, 2005, 

http ://s3 . amazonaws .com/conservationtools/s3_files/l 2 1 9/fiscalsponsor_spack.pdf ? AWS AccessKeyld- 1 NX AG5 3 S 

XSSG82H0V902&Expires=1406583588&Signature=Rs74RmrMt35ItHZ7PESzqXcZrqk%3D (last visited July 29, 

2014). 



7 



park." However, in the realm of the far-left environmental movement, fiscal sponsorship 
arrangements are far from temporary and usually around for several years or more. One fiscal 
sponsorship arrangement has existed for over 23 years, and the sponsored entity has indicated no 
plans to properly establish its own nonprofit status. 38 

This report focuses on fiscal sponsors including the Tides Foundation, the Sustainable 
Markets Foundation and Virginia Organizing. A prominent example of a fiscal sponsor 
relationship is illustrated by the Sustainable Markets Foundation (SMF) sponsorship of 350.org. 
Started by environmental activist Bill McKibben in 2008, 39 350.org is based in Washington, 
DC 40 and Brooklyn, New York. 41 In a 2010 interview, McKibben referred to the state of 350.org 
during the preceding year as a "scruffy little outfit" with "almost no money." 42 Yet, lsky.org, 
350.org' s precursor, reported expenses of over $2.6 million between October 1, 2008, and 
September 30, 2009, and net assets of over $2.1 million. 43 By 2012, 350.org disclosed expenses 
of over $2.8 million and net assets of over $3 million. 44 Between 201 1 and 2014, 350.org 
separately collected hundreds of thousands of dollars from the Park Foundation, 45 Rockefeller 
Brothers Foundation, 46 Tides Foundation, 47 Marisla Foundation, 48 ClimateWorks Foundation 49 
and Rockefeller Family Foundation 50 - through grants to SMF. Accordingly, this is hardly the 
type of temporary fundraising relationship envisioned by the IRS when it drafted the revenue 
ruling. 

Understanding the scope and limits of a 501(c)(3) private foundation and public charity is 
essential to understanding how the Billionaire's Club and far-left environmental organizations 
operate, interact, and how their actions may impermissibly exceed the scope of their charitable 
designation. 

b. The 501 (c)(4) 

If a member of the Billionaire's Club wishes to sponsor political activities and engage in 
a more aggressive lobbying campaign, he or she can anonymously fund a 501(c)(4) 
organization. 51 Importantly, when donations made to a 501(c)(4) are not disclosed and used for 



38 Id. 

39 What We Do, 350.ORG, http://350.org/about/what-we-do (last visited July 24, 2014). 

40 350.org, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

41 Contact, 350.ORG, http://350.org/about/contact (last visited July 24, 2014). 

42 Vivian Krause, Rockefellers behind 'scruffy little outfit', FINANCIAL POST (Feb. 14, 2013, 7: 16 PM), 
http://opinion.financialpost.com/2013/02/14/rockefellers-behind-scruffy-little-outfit/? federated=l. 

43 350.org, IRS Form 990, 2008. 

44 350.org IRS Form 990, 2012. 

45 Park Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2013. 

46 Rockefeller Bros. Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2013. 

47 Tides Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2013. 

48 Marisla Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2013. 

49 ClimateWorks Found., IRS Form 990, 2010. 

50 Rockefeller Family Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2013. 

51 Exempt Organizations Annual Reporting Requirements - Public Disclosure and Availability of Exempt 
Organizations Returns and Applications, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, July 11, 2013, http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs- 
tege/eo_disclosure_faqs.pdf. 



8 



political purposes, it is referred to as "dark money." Similar to a 501(c)(3), a 501(c)(4) is not 
organized for profit. 53 Donations to a 501(c)(4) are not tax deductible; however, 501(c)(4) 
revenue is exempt from federal income tax, as well as state franchise taxes and other expenses. 54 

Under the tax code, a 501(c)(4) is designated as a "social welfare" organization, which 
means it must operate exclusively to "further the common good and general welfare of the 
people of the community (such as by bringing about civic betterment and social 
improvements)." 55 A 501(c)(4) may engage in lobbying as its primary purpose without 
jeopardizing its exempt status. 56 Non-social welfare activities, such as political activity, are 
permissible, though limited. 57 The IRS permits a 501(c)(4) to dedicate up to 50% of its funds 
towards political activities and still maintain its beneficial tax status. 58 Political activities are 
those activities conducted to influence an election, selection, nomination, or appointment of any 
individual to public office. 

Nearly all of the public charities discussed in this report have an affiliated 501(c)(4) that 
engages in activities designed to influence elections and have no restrictions on their lobbying 
efforts. The funding of a 501(c)(4) by a 501(c)(3) affiliate is provocative in light of the 
restrictions the law places on public charities from participating in any political campaigning, 
either directly or indirectly, while permitting a 501(c)(4) to significantly engage in campaign 
activities. 59 The law requires that to the extent a 501(c)(3) funds a 501(c)(4), the donated funds 
must be earmarked for charitable activities. 60 The 501(c)(3) assumes financial oversight 
responsibilities to ensure the donation is only spent on activities the 501(c)(3) can undertake. 61 

While the law requires a clear separation between the activities of the 501(c)(3) and 
501(c)(4), 62 evidence suggests that in numerous instances, a 501(c)(3) and an affiliated 501(c)(4) 
share the same space, staff and board members. 63 According to attorneys in the nonprofit field, 



About.com, What is Dark Money, http://uspolitics.about.eom/od/Money-In-Politics/aAVhat-Is-Dark-Money.M 
(last visited July 28, 2014). 

53 IRS, Social Welfare Organizations, http://www.irs. gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Other-Non-Profits/Social- 
Welfare-Organizations (last visited July 28, 2014). 

54 Lobbying & 501(c)(4) Primer, HURWIT & ASSOCIATES, http://www.hurwitassociates.com/p_l_lobby_primer.pdf 
(last visited July 24, 2014). 

55 Social Welfare Organizations, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, http://www.irs.gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Other- 
Non-Profits/Social-Welfare-Organizations (last updated Mar. 6, 2014). 

56 B. Holly Schadler, The Connection: Strategies for Creating and Operating 501(c)(3)s, 501(c)(4)s and Political 
Organizations (3 rd ed. 2012), BOLDER ADVOCACY 35, http://www.bolderadvocacy.org/wp- 
content/uploads/2012/01/The_Connection.pdf (last visited July 24, 2014). 

57 Erika K. Lunder, 501(c)(4)s and Campaign Activity: How Much Is Too Much?, CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH 
Service, Sept. 17, 2012, http://www.crs.gov/LegalSidebar/details. aspx?ID=168&Source=search (last visited July 
27,2014). 

58 John F. Reilly & Barbara A. Braig Allen, Political Campaign and Lobbying Activities of IRC 501(c)(4), (c)(5), and 
(c)(6) Organizations, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-tege/eotopicl03.pdf (last visited July 
24,2014). 

59 Internal Revenue Code, 26 USC 501(c)(3) - "absolutely prohibited from directly or indirectly participating in, or 
intervening in, any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for elective public office" 

60 Schadler, supra note 56, at 41. 

61 Schadler, supra note 56, at 41. 

62 Schadler, supra note 56, at 36. 

63 Lobbying & 501(c)(4) Primer, supra note 54. 



9 



"[a]s a practical matter, many smaller and medium sized organizations utilizing this combined 
structure try to limit the use of the 501(c)(4) in terms of revenues, staff time, and expenses. This 
allows organizations to take greatest advantage of favorable 501(c)(3) charitable contribution 
deductions, sales tax exemptions, and postal rates." 64 Because all money is fungible, it appears 
that some money funneled through a 501(c)(3), benefiting from favorable tax treatment, could 
indirectly support political activities carried on by a 501(c)(4). 

While the critical 2010 Citizens United ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court struck down 
restrictions on nonprofits' spending of general treasury funds for independent public 
communications that "expressly advocate" for a federal candidate and "electioneering 
communications," the Court's decision did not affect the IRS limits on 501(c)(4) political 
activities. 66 



Comparison of Nonprofit Tax-Exempt Organizations 


501c3 


501c4 


Donations tax deductible 


Donations generally not tax deductible; revenue exempt 
from federal income taxes 


No more than 10% of resources for lobbying activities 


No lobbying limits 


Prohibited from engaging, directly or indirectly, in 
political activities except for nonpartisan voter education 


Permitted to conduct partisan political activities as long 
as it's not the group's primary purpose 


Can donate to 501c3 and 501c4 groups with limits (only 
for c3 activities) 


Can donate to 501c3 and 501c4 groups 


Must disclose donations exceeding $5,000 on Form 990 


Must disclose donations exceeding $5,000 on Form 990 


Public Charities 


Private Foundations 




Not required to publically 
disclose donors on annual 
IRS Form 990 


Must publically disclose 
donors on annual IRS 
Form 990 


Not required to publically disclose donors on annual IRS 
Form 990 


1/3 of donations must 
come from public (only 
$5,000 of donation counts 
towards 1/3 requirement); 
100% of government 
grants count towards that 
requirement 


Predominantly funded by 
one family or by a small 
group of people; no public 
funding requirement 




Donor tax break up to 50% 
of adjusted gross income 


Donor tax break up to 30% 
of adjusted gross income 



[A] Id. 

[B] Citizens United v. Fed. Election Comm'n , 558 U.S. 310 (2010). 
Schadler, supra note 56. 

10 



II. The Billionaire's Club: Leveraging their Investment 

When a member of the Billionaire's Club donates to a 501(c)(3), that transaction must be 
disclosed on the IRS Form-990. Accordingly, the Committee conducted a meticulous review of 
these public filings to follow the money. That money trail starts with a select group of the most 
active environmental foundations, flows through intermediary public charities referred to as 
pass-throughs and fiscal sponsors, and ends up within the coffers of activist groups who enact the 
proscribed agenda. A close knit network deeply entrenched in the far-left environmental 
movement facilitate the whole process. This section reveals this network and explains the role 
grant receiving activists play. 

a. The Ties that Bind: Key Relationships Between Facilitators, Donors, and 
Activists 

Members of the Billionaire's Club put a premium on access to the complex 
environmental infrastructure that has evolved to leverage substantial assets towards achieving 
defined policy outcomes. The Billionaire's Club needs this infrastructure to execute a 
centralized political strategy, and obtain a return on their investment. As a result, several models 
have developed to respond to this specific demand. One of the central planners of environmental 
strategy is the Environmental Grantmakers Association (EGA), but they are not the only force 
out there. The Democracy Alliance executes a complimentary but larger-scaled effort to funnel 
foundation funds into far-left political outcomes, which encompasses the same desired 
environmental policies as EGA. Finally, the Divest/Invest movement employs moral sentiments 
to pressure like-minded foundations to divest from fossil fuels, and invest in charity or renewable 
projects. Each of these groups has directed foundation dollars towards a specific and 
coordinated political agenda, which is then executed by environmental activists and so-called 
grassroots organizers. 

L Environmental Grantmakers Association: Where the Liberal Elite Meet and 
Mingle 

According to its website, EGA has nearly 200 members and "works with members and 
partners to promote effective environmental philanthropy by sharing knowledge, fostering 
debate, cultivating leadership, facilitating collaboration, and catalyzing action." 67 In 2011, EGA 
member organizations collectively donated approximately $1.13 billion, or 40% of all foundation 
giving, to environmental causes. 68 EGA is a very secretive organization, withholding its 
membership list from the public. In fact, in response to a request from the Committee, EGA 
even refused to disclose their membership list to Congress. 69 



Environmental Grantmakers Association, http://www.ega.org (last visited July 24, 2014) and About, 
Environmental Grantmakers Association, http://www.ega.org/about (last visited July 24, 2014). 

68 Franny C. Canfield & Maud Henderson, Tracking the Field: Analyzing Trends in Environmental Grantmaking, 
Environmental Grantmakers Association, 

http://ega.org/sites/default/files/pubs/summaries/EGA_TTF_v4_ExecSummary_Final.pdf (last visited July 24, 
2014). 

69 Letter from Rachel Leon, Exec. Dir., Envt'l Grantmakers Assoc., to Rep. Staff, S. Comm. on Env't & Public 
Works (July 22, 2014). 



11 



According to Ron Arnold, a prolific author who 
has written extensively on how the far-left 
environmental funders operate, distribute money, and 
influence policy, he argues that the EGA is "command 

70 

central of the environmental movement." By deciding 
which organizations get money, the grantmakers 
"driv[e] their own agenda with selective grants." 71 A 
transcript of an early EGA strategy meeting contains a 
conversation about how funders can reorganize the 
environmental movement. Donald Ross, who at the time represented the Rockefeller Brothers 
Fund, argued that funders should craft a "task force approach" to allocate resources. 

Funders can play a role in using money to drive, to create, ad hoc efforts, in many 
cases that will have a litigation component coming from one group, a lobbying 
component coming from another group, a grass roots component organizing 
component from yet a third group with a structure that enables them to function 
well. 72 

For institutions adopting prescriptive grantmaking "the motto is, don't show up without 
an invitation." 73 The Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) is a good example of prescriptive 
grantmaking used to drive an identified agenda. RBF warn prospective applicants that: "While 
the Fund remains open to unsolicited requests, applicants should be aware that the likelihood of 
an unsolicited request becoming a grant is low." 74 

The RBF is by no means the only foundation who refuses to consider uninvited 
applicants. The Schmidt Family Foundation also warns prospective grant applicants that, "all of 
the Foundation's grantmaking is now done on a strictly invitational basis and we will not review 
proposals received either in the mail or to our email inbox. We proactively seek new partnerships 
based on our program area strategies." 75 Similarly the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation 
bluntly states: 

Almost all grants are awarded to organizations identified by the Foundation. The 
Foundation does accept unsolicited Letters of Inquiry from organizations looking 
for funding in limited areas. Only on very rare occasions are grants awarded in 
response to these unsolicited funding inquiries. 76 



"While we want to be helpful and 
be prompt in our reply to you and 
your committee, our organization 
does not post its members list on 
our website or share its member 

list externally." 
-Rachel Leon, Executive Director of 
EGA to EPW Committee Staff 



Ron Arnold, Undue Influence: Wealthy Foundations, Grant-Driven Environmental Groups, and 
Zealous Bureaucrats That Control Your Future (1991), p. 71. 

71 Id. at 72. 

72 Id. at 74. 

73 Id. at 71. 

74 ROCKEFELLERS BROS. FUND, Before You Apply, http://www.rbf.org/content/before-you-apply (last visited 
July 28, 2014). 

75 Grantees, 1 1™ HOUR PROJECT, http://www. 1 lthhourproject.org/grantees (last visited July 24, 2014). 

76 Grantseekers, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, http://www.hewlett.org/grants/grantseekers (last 
visited July 24, 2014). 



12 



The prescriptive grants awarded by EGA members specify how recipients must use the 
funds. This allows the Billionaire's Club to engage in a defined transaction so they know in 
advance what services to expect for their money. As such, environmental groups that heavily 
rely on foundation funds to comprise a substantial portion of their budgets begin to look much 
more like private contractors buying and selling a service rather than benevolent nonprofits 
seeking to carry out charitable acts. 



Top 10 EGA Donors to Environmental Causes in 2011 



Foundation 


Total Dollars Awarded 


No. of Grants 


Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation 


$134,438,760 


251 


David and Lucile Packard Foundation 


$121,016,258 


207 


Walton Family Foundation, Inc. 


$76,218,045 


105 


William and Flora Hewlett Foundation 


$53,439,469 


115 


Rockefeller Foundation 


$43,809,793 


117 


Sea Change Foundation 


$43,149,911 


42 


Richard King Mellon Foundation 


$29,080,000 


41 


Robertson Foundation 


$28,507,000 


16 


John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation 


$24,204,500 


60 


Ford Foundation 


$23,922,840 


108 


Total: 


$577,786,576 


1,034 



it Democracy Alliance: Advancing the Progressive Agenda by Promoting the 
Far-Left Environmental Agenda 

The EGA is unquestionably the funding epicenter of the environmental movement; 
however, other groups have emerged to augment their efforts. The Democracy Alliance (DA) 
adopted many of the lessons learned by EGA and works to create an all-encompassing far-left 
infrastructure to support affiliated and approved groups. According to DA, it connects wealthy 
donors, other similarly minded donors, "high impact organizations," and political leaders. 77 In 
fact, DA boasts that it is the "largest convener of progressive individuals and institutional 
donors" and serves as a "center of gravity" for the far-left funding world. 

Members of DA pay $30,000 in dues and pledge to contribute at least $200,000 to groups 
DA supports. 79 In exchange, DA gives clients "professional recommendations" on progressive 
philanthropy, as well as "invitations to exclusive events and conference calls, regular 
communications, such as updates on important issues and the work of recommended 
organizations and quarterly newsletters and access to [a] members-only community website and 
comprehensive Partner Directory." 80 



Community. Strategy. Investment. Impact., DEMOCRACY ALLIANCE, http://www.democracyalliance.org (last 
visited July 24, 2014). 

78 Memo from Stephanie Mueller to DA Board of Directors RE: DA Spring Conference Messaging Q and A, April 
22,2014 

79 Lachlan Markay, EXCLUSIVE: Democracy Alliance Network Revealed, THE WASHINGTON FREE BEACON, 
May 19, 2014, http://freebeacon.com/politics/exclusive-democracy-alliance-network-revealed/ 

80 Membership, DEMOCRACY ALLIANCE, http://www.democracyalliance.org/membership (last visited July 24, 2014). 



13 



In a spring 2014 publication, DA claims to make investment recommendations to wealthy 
donors to advance and protect the interests of "lower and middle-income Americans" in the 
political system. 81 Yet, in doing so, this group caters to millionaires and billionaires, while 
ironically suggesting the "flood of special interest money in our political system continues 
unabated" without acknowledging the hypocrisy in its efforts to funnel money to activists groups 

attacking affordable energy, and undermining the very 
people they claim to protect. 82 

Further, DA flouts transparency and public 
participation as the group emphasizes secrecy in all its 
operations. It does not disclose the details of any 
transaction it facilitates, and its members and donor- 
recipients cannot speak publically about the 
organization. 83 While DA does not disclose 
transactions it facilitates, it is likely not a coincidence 
that two groups highlighted in its 2014 publication - the Center for American Progress (CAP) 
and Media Matters - received vast sums of money from the same foundations supporting the far- 
left environmental movement. CAP is an organization dedicated to increasing government 
control. It was co-founded by John Podesta, the current senior climate advisor to President 
Obama and former President Bill Clinton's Chief of Staff, along with Herbert Sandler, who 
recently contributed $1 million to Tom Steyer's NextGen Climate Action Committee. 84 Notably, 
Sandler is the Founding Chairman of far-left media outlet ProPublica, and currently serves on its 
Board of Directors with Steyer's wife, Kat Taylor. 



Democracy Alliance does not 
disclose the details of any 
transaction it facilitates, and its 
members and donor-recipients 
cannot speak publically about the 
organization. 



Between 2010 and 2013, Sea Change Foundation, 
Foundation, Rockefeller Family Fund, Rockefeller 
Brothers Fund, Tides Foundation, and the Marisla 
Foundation donated over $7 million to CAP. 86 Notably, 
in 2009, a Bermuda-based group, The Atlantic 
Philanthropies, gave CAP a $500,000 grant, "To 
support a joint project with Media Matters Action 
Network." 87 Media Matters is a clearly liberal media 
group that advertises itself as "dedicated to 
comprehensively monitoring, analyzing, and correcting 



Wallace Global Fund, Energy 



"Many of our donors choose not 
to participate publicly, and we 
respect that. The DA exists to 

provide a comfortable 
environment for our partners to 
collectively make a real impact." 
-Democracy Alliance Board of 
Directors 



81 Democracy Alliance, Spring 2014 Democracy Alliance Investment Recommendations (2014), 
available at https://www.documentcloud.Org/documents/1202744-da-portfolio2012-2014-042714.M 

(last accessed July 25, 2014). 

82 Id. 

83 Lachlan Markay, Read the Confidential Document Left Behind at the Democracy Alliance Meeting, THE 
Washington Free Beacon, (May 5, 2014, 1:00 PM), http://freebeacon.com/politics/jonathan-soros-left-a- 
confidential-document-at-his-donor-conference (last visited July 25, 2014). 

84 Greg Giroux, Steyer Cuts $2 Million for Climate, Mercer Aids Tea Party, BLOOMBERG, July 21, 2014, 
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-07-21/steyer-cuts-2-million-for-climate-mercer-aids-tea-party.html. 

85 http ://www.propublica.org/about/leadership/ 

86 SeaChange Found., Wallace Global Fund, Energy Found., Rockefeller Family Fund, Rockefeller Bros. Fund, 
Tides Found., Marisla Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2013. 

87 Atlantic Philanthropies, IRS Form 990, 2009. 



14 



conservative misinformation in the U.S. media." 
Members of the Billionaire's Club, including Wallace 
Global Fund, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Park 
Foundation, Tides Foundation and Marisla Foundations, 
have donated over $1.8 million to Media Matters 
between 2010 and 2013. 89 David Brock founded Media 
Matters in 2004 and currently serves as the group's 
president as well as president of the far-left media 
outlet, The American Independent Institute. 90 Brock 
also sits on the board of Priorities USA, another group 
DA steers money towards. 91 

In addition to groups such as CAP and Media 
Matters, DA created a progressive infrastructure map 
including several environmental groups discussed in 
this report. yz Many of the groups recommended to the 'investors' and "vetted by Investment 
Services Staff lead the environmental movement and are already heavily funded by EGA 
members. For instance, DA seeks to steer money towards 350.org, BlueGreen Alliance, the 
League of Conservation Voters (LCV), Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Sierra 
Club, and U.S. Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGS). 

These environmental groups are well aligned with the greater far-left agenda. Indeed, 
one of DA's "progressive victories" included "a series of executive actions to combat the threat 
of climate change. . .made possible by a well-aligned network of organizations - collaborating 
with the greater progressive infrastructure - that drives change by . . .communicating policies to 

i . . ,,94 

key constituencies. 



One of DA's "progressive 
victories" included "a series of 
executive actions to combat the 
threat of climate change... made 
possible by a well-aligned 
network of organizations - 
collaborating with the greater 
progressive infrastructure - that 

drives change by 
...communicating policies to key 

constituencies." 
-Spring 2014 Democracy Alliance 
Investment Recommendations 



About Us, Media Matters for America, http://mediamatters.org/about (last visited July 24, 2014). 

89 Wallace Global Fund, Rockefeller Bros. Fund, Park Found., Tides Found., Marisla Found., IRS Form 990, 2010- 
2013. 

90 Nick Massella, Media Matters for America Founder David Brock Relaunches American Independent Institute, 
MEDIABISTRO, June 20, 2014, http://www.mediabistro.com/fishbowldc/media-matters-for-america-founder- 
david-brock-relaunches-american-independent-institute_bl28302. 

91 Amy Chozick, Once an Enemy of Bill, Now a Friend of Hillary, NEW YORK TIMES, Mar. 25, 2014, 
http://www.nytimes.coin/2014/03/26/us/politics/once-intent-on-bringing-down-a-clinton-now-raising-up- 
another . html ?_r=0 . 

92 DEMOCRACY ALLIANCE, SPRING 2014 DEMOCRACY ALLIANCE INVESTMENT 
RECOMMENDATIONS (2014), at 54, available at https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/1202744-da- 
portfolio2012-2014-042714.html#document/pl (last visited July 25, 2014). 

93 Id. at 53. 



15 



Reprint of Democracy Alliance Progressive Infrastructre Map Spring 
2014 with Key Environmental Groups Highlighted 



3 

i 
9 

3 

d 

9 

'J 

'J 
'J 

m 



League of Young Voters ■ 
Main Street Alliance 
Ma|orlty PAC 
The Management Center 
MapUght 

Mayors Against Illegal Guns 
The Media Consortium 
Media Matters for America 

Mi Familla Vota 
Midwest Academy ♦ 
MomsRising 
Mother Jones 

Movemer Advancement Jroject 
NAACP 

NARAL P o-Choice Amerf a 
The Natic i ♦ 
National ouncil of La RaJa ■ 



New American Leaders Project 
New Leaders Council 



New Organizing Institute 

NextGen Climate Action e 
NRDC 

Th( Opportunity Aget>da ♦ 



Pe< pie for the Ameri 

PIC 5 National Netwc 

Pla med Parenthood 

Pri ritiesUSA 

Pre jressive Campalj i 
Co imlttee 

Pre gressive Congres 



Pre gressive States N 
Pri graisNow 



Sierra Ciub ■ 

■all Business Majority 
Sojourners ■ 

uthern Poverty Law Center 
I Southern Progress Fund 



Media Matters for America 

Mother Jones 

NextGen Climate Action 

NRDC 

Sierra Club 

US PIRGS 



State Voices 

Student PIRGs 
Sunlight Foundation 
The Texas Future Project* 
Third Way • 

Truman National Security Project 
Ultraviolet 

United for a Fair Economy 
United Republic 
US PIRGS 
llSAction ■ 

'oices for Progress 

r oter Participation Center ■ 

r oteVets.org 

'oto Latino 

vashington Monthly 

vellstone Action 

Women's Equality Center 

Working America 

foung Democrats of America ■ 

foung Invlnclbies 



•VP4 and YEO Network ■ 



PR06RESSIVE INFRASTRUCTURE MAP SPRING 2014 




Center for Political 
Accountability 

The Center for Popular 
Democracy 

Center for Responsible Lending * 
Center for Social Inclusion ■ 
Center for Story-based Strategy 



Fair Share Alliance 

Faith In Public Life 

The Foundation for the Future 

Free Press" 

Free Speech for People 

Free Speech TV 



■Id Ml 
Integrate 



Americans United For 

Analyst Institute 

The Atlas Project 

Auburn Seminary 

Ballot Initiative Strategy Ci 

Bend the Arc: 
Partnership fo/Justice 

CMC I 

BlueGreen Alliance 

Brave New Films ■ 

Brannan Canter for Ji 

The Bus Federation J 

Campaign for Amerjfa's Future ■ 



3 3 vJ.or^ 

BlueGreen Alliance 
Center for American Progress 
League of Conservation Voters 




Catholics United i 

Center for American Progress 

Center tor Community Change 

Center for Economic 
and Policy Research 

Center for Media and Democracy 



Constitutional 
Accountability Center 

Corporate Action Network 

CREW" 

Democracy for America 
Democracy Initiative 
Democracy Now ■ 
Democracy: A Journal of Ideas 
Demos 

Drug Policy Alliance 

Economic Innovation Institute 

Economic Policy Institute • 

Emerge America 

EMILY'S List ■ 

Energy Action Coalition 

Enroll America 

Environment America 

Fair Elections Legal Network 



d Count Inc. 
HI Hop Caucus 
H< jse Majority PAC 
Hi nan Rights Campaign 
i\ )te 

In itute for Research & 
Ec icatlon on Human Rights 

itute on Taxation and 
E< inomic Policy 

Ji tice at Stake 
Kr jw Your Care 
U ino Engagement Fund 



La dershlp Conference on Civil 
an I Human Rights 

League of Conservation Voters 



of the oi 
support by the 

instrumental roles 
ted progressive 
to specificaly highlight 
i us Alliance Partner 
movement and the 



54 2013-2014 DA PORTFOLIO 



16 



Hi. Divest/Invest: The Moral Crusaders 



The divesting in fossil fuels and investing in philanthropy (Divest/Invest) movement 
follows a slightly different model, but involves many of the same players. Essentially, 
Divest/Invest defines the fossil fuel industry as a moral pariah. 95 This group attempts to evoke 
the moral stance associated with the anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa in the 1980's and 
depicts the effort to divest in fossil fuel as a moral imperative. 96 In doing so, this group opposes 
a tool that would help to secure the goal of economic opportunity for Africans that Mandela 
fought for. 97 

Originally, Bill McKibben, the founder and President of 350.org started the movement 
through the 2013 "Do the Math" tour. 98 According to an article in Rolling Stone magazine, 
McKibben further argued that foundations should divest from fossil fuels because the industry's 
business plan to market its existing reserves contradicts the far-left efforts on climate change. 99 
Moreover, he urged that these funds go towards "climate solutions" and so-called renewable 
projects. 100 The goal of these efforts has been clearly articulated by Nat Simons, President of 
Sea Change Foundation: 

To get it done, quickly, is going to take a Herculean effort from all sides. Because 
it's not really a question of whether we move to a low carbon economy. I think 
it's clear we're moving there... the question is how quickly. The role of 
philanthropy is really to facilitate that process... It's not going to be ramming 
something down the throats of certain people. We know that that's not going to 
work. We've seen that, we've watched that movie before. We know it's not going 
to happen. We can't take this momentum and let it stall. So philanthropists, 
foundations, they have a huge responsibility. 101 

Following McKibben' s efforts, in January 2014, Dr. Ellen Dorsey, Executive Director of 
the Wallace Global Fund, launched the initiative, Divest-Invest Philanthropy. She previously 
worked with the Heinz endowments and sat on the board of Amnesty International. 103 The 
Wallace Family Fund has given to many environmental groups highlighted in this report, 
including 350.org, Sustainable Markets Foundation, Center for American Progress, Center for 
Biological Diversity, Union of Concerned Scientists, the Tides Center, Sierra Club, Virginia 



Why Divest?, DlVEST-lNVEST, http://divestinvest.org/why-divest (last visited July 25, 2014). 

96 Id. 

97 Ron Arnold, Electricity for Africa initiative could help make 'High-Energy Planet' vision a reality, WASHINGTON 
Examiner, July 22, 2014, 5:00 PM, http://rn.washingtonexaminer.com/electricity-for-africa-initiative-could-help- 
make-high-energy-planet-vision-a-reality/article/2551141 (last visited July 28, 2014). 

98 350.org. Do the Math, http://math.350.org/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

99 Bill McKibben, The Case for Fossil Fuel Divestment, ROLLING STONE, Feb. 22, 2013, 

http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-case-for-fossil-fuel-divestment-20130222 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

100 Id. 

101 Nat Simons, Remarks at National Clean Energy Project Roundtable, C-SPAN, Feb. 23, 2009, http://www.c- 
span.org/video/?284239-l/national-clean-energy-project. 

102 Ellen Dorsey and Richard Mott, Philanthropy Rises to the Fossil Fuel Divest-Invest Challenge, HUFFINGTON 
POST, Jan. 30, 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ellen-dorsey/philanthropy-rises-to-the_b_4690774.html. 

103 About Us: Who We Are, Board of Directors, Dr. Ellen Dorsey, U.S. HUMAN RIGHTS NETWORK, 
http://www.ushrnetwork.org/about-us/who-we-are/board/dr-ellen-dorsey (last visited July 25, 2014). 



17 



Organizing, Greenpeace, Media Matters, Earth Justice, and the Environmental Integrity 
Project. 104 Currently, seventeen foundations with a combined asset base of $1.8 billion, 105 
including the Wallace Global Fund, Park Foundation, the Schmidt Family Foundation, and the 
Sierra Club Foundation have joined the Divest- Invest Philanthropy effort. 106 

b. The Facilitators: Key Environmental Activists 

Just as the Environmental Grantmakers Association, Democracy Alliance, and others 
have forged close relationships in order to attract attention of investors, so too have individuals. 
The Committee has discovered a narrow set of individuals whose careers are part of the fabric of 
the far-left environmental movement. These individuals exercise outsized influence regarding 
the distribution of funds. Some of these individuals include: Donald Ross, Hal Harvey, Mark 
Burget, Charlotte Pera, Larry Kramer, William Reilly, and Jay Halfon. Each individual has long 
employment histories at private foundations, public charities and activist groups at the forefront 
of the far-left environmental movement. Today, they serve as coordinators and intermediaries 
between the private foundations and the activist groups. 

Donald Ross began his career as an attorney working for Ralph Nader, 107 and is 
currently the principal/founding partner of M+R Strategic Services, whose clients include some 
of the lead environmental groups and foundations including: Environmental Defense Fund, 
Earthjustice, Hewlett Foundation, League of Conservation Voters, Marisla Foundation, NRDC, 
The Nature Conservancy, National Wildlife Federation, Rockefeller Brothers Foundation, 

108 

Rockefeller Family Fund, UCS, WWF, and the Wallace Global Fund. He served on the Board 
of the LCV Education Fund in 20 12 109 and as the chairman of the Board for Greenpeace from 
2002 to 2010. 110 He previously served as the director of the Rockefeller Family Fund, 111 as well 
as founder and Executive Director of the NY-PIRG. 112 

Hal Harvey connects the Hewlett Foundation, the Energy Foundation and the 
ClimateWorks Foundation. He currently serves as CEO of Energy Innovation, an energy and 
environmental policy firm, and most recently assisted in the public release of the highly 
criticized 113 Risky Business Project, co-Chaired by Henry Paulson, Michael Bloomberg, and 



1U4 Wallace Global Fund, IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

105 Justin Doom, Foundations with $1.8 Billion Vow Fossil-Fuel Divestment, BLOOMBERG (Jan. 30, 2014, 2:53 PM), 
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/20 14-0 1 -30/foundations-with- l-8-billion-vow-fossil-fuel-divestment.html. 

106 Philanthropy, DlVEST-lNVEST, http://divestinvest.org/philanthropy (last visited July 24, 2014). 

107 Donald K. Ross, SOURCEWATCH, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Donald_K._Ross (last visited July 
25,2014). 

108 SourceWatch, M&R Strategic Services, 

http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=M%2BR_Strategic_Services, (last visited July 24, 2014). 

109 League of Conservation Voters Education Fund, GuideStar, 

http://www.guidestar.org/ViewPdf.aspx?PdfSource=0&ein=52-1379661 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

110 Will Evans, Profile: League of Conservation Voters, NPR, Sept. 9, 2008, 
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=944 11562 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

111 Donald K. Ross, SOURCEWATCH, http://www. source watch. org/index.php?title=Donald_K._Ross (last visited July 
25,2014). 

112 Id. 

113 Risky Business Project, Understanding Climate Risk with Hal Harvey, 
http://riskybusiness.org/report/overview/understanding-risk (last visited July 28, 2014). 



18 



Tom Steyer. 114 Paulson is a former Secretary of the Treasury and current Chairman of the 
Paulson Institute, 115 which advocates for environmental protection in the United States and 
China. 116 Michael Bloomberg is founder of Bloomberg LP and served three terms as Mayor of 
New York City. 117 The main sponsors of the project were Bloomberg Philanthropies, the Office 

118 

of Hank Paulson, the Rockefeller Family Fund and the TomKat Charitable Trust. Harvey's 
relationship with Paulson dates back at least to May 2012, when Harvey served as a Senior 
Fellow at the Paulson Institute, though it likely goes back much further as Wendy Paulson, Hank 
Paulson's wife, is active in the environmental sphere as she served on the board of The Nature 
Conservancy (TNC). 119 

Before his collaborative project with Paulson, Bloomberg and Steyer, Harvey was 
founder and CEO of ClimateWorks Foundation from 2008 to 201 1, and served as the founder 
and President of the Energy Foundation from 1991 to 2002. From January 2002 through January 
2008, he was the Environment Program Director of the Hewlett Foundation. 120 Harvey's 
successor at ClimateWorks was Mark Burget, 
the former Chief Conservation Programs 

121 

Officer at TNC. Burget has since returned 
to TNC as the Executive Vice President and 
North American Regional Director, and also 
currently serves on the Board of Directors at 

122 

the Energy Foundation. Burget was 
replaced by Charlotte Pera, who was formerly 
the Senior Vice President and Director of US 
Programs at the Energy Foundation. 123 Larry 
Kramer is also connected to this network as 
the current president of the William and Flora 
Hewlett Foundation, as well as serving on the 

board of ClimateWorks Foundation. 124 President Obama and William Reilly 




Risky Business, A Climate Risk Assessment for the 
United States (June 2014), http://riskybusiness.org/uploads/files/RiskyBusiness_Report_WEB_7_22_14.pdf (last 
visited July 25, 2014). 

115 Wendy Paulson, ASPEN IDEAS FESTIVAL, http://www.aspenideas.org/speaker/wendy-paulson (last visited July 25, 
2014). 

116 About Us, The Paulson Institute, http://www.paulsoninstitute.org/about-us (last visited July 25, 2014). 

117 Co-Chairs, RISKY BUSINESS, http://riskybusiness.org/about/cochairs (last visited July 25, 2014). 

118 Risky Business, A Climate Risk Assessment for the United States (June 2014), 
http://riskybusiness.org/uploads/files/RiskyBusiness_Report_WEB_7_22_14.pdf (last visited July 25, 2014). 

119 LCV Political Engagement Fund, CAMPAIGN MONEY, http://www.campaignmoney.com/political/527/league-of- 
conservation-voters-political-engagement-fund.asp?spg=9 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

120 Institute for New Economic Thinking, Hal Harvey, http://ineteconomics.org/people/hal-harvey (last visited July 
28, 2014). 

121 Conservation: Mark Burget Leaves TNC for Climate Works, The Green Skeptic (July 29, 2008), 
http://www.thegreenskeptic.com/2008/07/conservation-mark-burget-leaves-tnc-for.html (last visited July 25, 2014). 

122 Board Members: Mark Burget, ENERGY FOUNDATION, http://www.ef.org/board/mark-burget (last visited July 25, 
2014). 

123 Our Staff, ClimateWorks Foundation, http://www.climateworks.org/about/staff (last visited July 25, 2014). 

124 Our Board, CLIMATEWORKS FOUNDATION , http://www.climateworks.org/about/board/ (last visited July 28, 
2014). 



19 



William Reilly is another person with close connections to these individuals and 
organizations. Before his appointment to serve as EPA Administrator in 1989, Reilly was the 
President of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). He returned to WWF in 1993 after his tenure at 
EPA, and is currently Chairman Emeritus of the Board of WWF. He is also Chairman Emeritus 
of the Board of ClimateWorks Foundation, director of the David and Lucille Packard 
Foundation, and is on the Advisory Board of the Nicholas Institute for Environment Policy 
Solutions at Duke University. 



Jay Halfon is another pivotal player that has emerged in the environmental movement 
through his connections in New York. Halfon is currently on the Board of Directors for the Park 

Foundation, Earthworks, Sustainable Markets 

Foundation (SMF), and 350.org. 127 Interestingly, 
Halfon does not even list his affiliation to SMF on 
his 350.org biography; yet Park Foundation heavily 
funds SMF and SMF is a "fiscal sponsor" of 
350.org. 128 Notably, the President of 350.org, Bill 
McKibben, is a close friend of Tom Steyer. In 
2012, McKibben and Steyer hiked through the 
Adirondack Mountains, where the two men bonded 
and McKibben encouraged Steyer to become active 
in environmental causes, including opposition to 
the Keystone XL pipeline. 129 




Jay Halfon (left) & Donald Ross (right) 



130 



Previously, Halfon served as Executive Director of Donald Ross's NY-PIRG. PIRGs play a 
central role in the environmental movement as a meeting ground for trial attorneys and radical 
activists to coordinate a faux grassroots campaign. SMF has close ties to PIRGs and provides 
significant funding to PIRG chapters. 131 Including Halfon, three of the four officers of the SMF 
previously worked for PIRG: the President of SMF, Elizabeth Hitchcock, served as 
Communications Director for US PIRGs, and Secretary and Treasurer of SMF, Geoff Boehm, 
was Program Director and Senior Attorney for NY-PIRG. 



Barack Obama and William Reilly, Zimbio, 
http ://www.zimbio .com/photos/B arack+ObamaAVilliam+Reilly/President+Obama+Delivers+Address+Rose+Garde 
n/6Xel lGdQ7rb (last visited July 28, 2014). 

126 Leadership: William K. Reilly, World Wildlife Fund, http://www.worldwildlife.org/leaders/william-k-reilly 
(last visited July 25, 2014). 

127 SourceWatch, Jay R. Halfon, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Jay_R._Halfon (last viewed July 25, 2014). 

128 Park Found. IRS Form 990s, 2010-2012. 

129 Carol Leonnig, Tom Hamburger and Rosalind Helderman, Tom Steyer' s Slow, and ongoing, conversion from 
fossil-fuels investor to climate activist, THE WASHINGTON POST (June 9, 2014), 

http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/tom-steyers-slow-and-ongoing-conversion-from-fossil-fuels-investor-to- 
climate-activist/2014/06/08/6478da2e-ea68-l Ie3-b98c-72cef4a00499_story.html (last visited July 25, 2014). 

130 NYPIRG Straphandlers Campaign: 25 Years of Transit Advocacy, http://www.straphangers.org/25th/photos/ (last 
visited July 29, 2014). 

131 SMF disbursed NY PIRG $180,000 in 2010 & $75,000 in 201 1, and VT Public Interest Research & Education 
Fund (VT PIRG) $50,000 in 2011; Sustainable Markets Found. IRS Form 990, 2010 & 2011. 



20 



c. The Face of the Environmental Movement: Public Charity Activists 

The ultimate recipients of donations from the Billionaire's Club include far-left 
environmental public charities. While a willing and knowledgeable partner to the Billionaire's 
Club, these entities propagate the false notion that they are independent, citizen-funded groups 
working altruistically. In reality, they work in tandem with wealthy donors to maximize the 
value of the donors' tax deductible donations and leverage their combined resources to influence 

elections and policy outcomes, with a focus on the 
EPA. 

Primarily, the public charity serves as the 
face of the environmental movement. For example, 
the National Resourced Defense Council (NRDC) 
brags that: "We work with those who would help us 
move to a sustainable future and we sue those who 
poison our people or lands." 132 The Union of 
Concerned (UCS) claims it "stands out among nonprofit organizations as the reliable source for 
independent scientific analysis." 133 The iconic panda logo has made the World Wildlife Fund 
(WWF) instantly recognizable to many people around the world, and boasts the noble goal of 
working to preserve nature and its creatures. 134 



Environmental activists work in 
tandem with wealthy donors to 
maximize the value of the donors' tax 

deductible donations and leverage 
their combined resources to influence 
elections and policy outcomes. 



World Wildlife Fund Headquarters - Ziest, Netherlands 1 ^ 

The notion that far-left environmental charities fight for the interest of the common man 
is encapsulated in a video promoted by 350.org. This video, which articulates their fight against 
capitalism, argues that the "extractive economy," harms both the environment and the common 



How We Protected Your Health and Environment in 2012, NATURAL RESOURCES DEFENSE COUNCIL, 
http://www.nrdc.org/about/victories.asp (last visited July 25, 2014). 

133 About Us: Independent Science, UNION OF CONCERNED SCIENTISTS, http://www.ucsusa.org/about (last visited 
July 25, 2014). 

134 About Us, World Wildlife Fund, http://www.worldwildlife.org/about (last visited July 25, 2014). 

135 Go 100% Renewable Energy, WWF Headquarters, 

http://www.gol00percent.org/cms/index.php?id=70&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=58 (last visited July 29, 2014). 



21 



"The new economy has to step 
away, and then push back at 

those old pillars, because it has 
to be a new economy that is 
about sustainable resources, 

that puts people before profit, 

that puts planet before profit." 
-350.org-supported video 



man: "The new economy has to step away, and 
then push back at those old pillars, because it has 
to be a new economy that is about sustainable 
resources, that puts people before profit, that puts 
planet before profit." 136 

Far from their propaganda, these activist 
groups merely provide a service to wealthy 
"investors," who pay a sizable sum for specialized 
services. The chart below provides additional 
detail about the amount of funding these groups 
have received from the Billionaire's Club. 



Billionaire's Club Funding to Key Environmental Activists (2010-2013) 



Organization 


Grants Received 


American Lung Association 


$4,816,481 


BlueGreen Alliance 


$5,280,000 


Center for American Progress 


$8,390,861 


Earthjustice 


$3,533,683 


Environmental Defense Fund 


$53,695,816 


Environmental Integrity Project 


$2,098,000 


Greenpeace 


$1,980,000 


League of Conservation Voters Education Fund 


$13,175,000 


National Audubon Society 


$11,192,475 


National Wildlife Federation 


$14,490,613 


Natural Resources Defense Council 


$25,512,125 


Nature Conservancy 


$58,633,374 


Sierra Club Foundation 


$17,263,612 


Union of Concerned Scientists 


$8,195,448 


World Wildlife Fund 


$26,614,320 



Video: How We Live: A Journey Towards a Just Transition (EDGE Funders Alliance, 2014), available at 
http://350.org/a-new-economic-paradigm-is-not-only-possible-but-plausible (last visited July 25, 2014). 
137 Based on available 2010-2013 IRS Form 990's from the following foundations: Climate Works, David and Lucile 
Packard Foundation, Energy Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Marisla Foundation, Park 
Foundation, Rockefeller Brothers Foundation, Rockefeller Family Fund, Schmidt Family Foundation, Sea Change 
Foundation, Tides Center, Tides Foundation, Wallace Global Fund, Walton Family Foundation, and William and 
Flora Hewlett Foundation. 



22 



III. The Bureaucrats: How the Obama EPA is Deeply Intertwined with the 
Billionaire's Club and their Far-left Environmental Activists 



Federal agencies, which wield significant amounts of delegated power, should be staffed 
with neutral experts dedicated to serving the public interest. However, recent reports of alleged 
collusion between environmentalists and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) senior 
officials have made apparent the Obama Administration's failure to abide by this most basic 
principle of executive branch governance. In fact, the Committee has uncovered evidence that 
proves President Obama and his EPA are pivotal partners in the far-left environmental 
movement. The Agency's leadership under President Obama is closely connected with the 
Billionaire's Club and their network of activists. These connections provide the Billionaire's 
Club with the opportunity to exploit the relationships, and in turn shape public policy and the 
disposition of government grants. This section reveals that as part of the far-left scheme, the 
Obama Administration has installed an audacious green-revolving door at EPA, which has 
become a valuable asset for the environmental movement and its wealthy donors. 

a. EPA's Green Revolving Door 

The Committee has obtained emails that amply demonstrate how the environmental 
movement is deeply plugged into the Obama EPA via operatives who rotate through the 
Administration. In one shocking example, the Committee learned of an arrangement between 
the Rockefeller Family Fund (RFF) and EPA where RFF agreed to pay the salary of Shalini 
Vajjhala, then an employee at the nonprofit organization Resources for the Future, to work at the 
White House Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). 138 According to internal EPA 
documents, this arrangement benefited EPA as Vajjhala would have the opportunity to, "stake 
our claim there" 139 - where "our" is the EPA Office of International and Tribal Affairs and 
"there" refers to the White House. 

This arrangement was enthusiastically endorsed by both former EPA Administrator Lisa 
Jackson, stating "I think it's a fine idea and can only help EPA in the long run," 140 and Jackson's 
Chief of Staff Diane Thompson, affirming "My thoughts exactly. The more inside connections 
the better " (emphasis added). 141 After Vajjhala cycled through the White House and EPA, she 
returned to the Rockefeller Family Fund and is now founder and CEO of E.invest Initiative, 
whose portfolio is supported by the Rockefeller funding. 142 Interestingly, Vajjhala is also a 
contributor to the Huffington Post, which is heavily funded by the Park Foundation. 143 

In another outrageous email exchange, former Assistant Administrator for the Office of 
International and Tribal Affairs, Michelle DePass, and "Richard Windsor," former Administrator 
Jackson's alias, strategize over how best to leverage a public appearance before the 
Environmental Grantmakers Association (EGA). Reproduced in full, the email exchange states: 



138 Email from Shalini Vajjhala to Michelle DePass (June 19, 2009; 07:27 AM EST)(On file with Committee) 

139 Email from Michelle DePass to Richard Windsor (June 19, 2009)(On file with Committee). 

140 Id. 

141 Id. 

142 Shalini Vajjhala, LlNKEDlN, https://www.linkedin.com/in/shalinivajjhala (last accessed July 25, 2014). 

143 Shalini Vajjhala, HUFFINGTON POST, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/shalini-vajjhala (last accessed July 25, 
2014). 



23 



01268-EPA-1999 



LisaP Jackson/DC/USEPA/US 

Sent by: Richard Windsor 



To Michelle DePass 



cc 



02/17/2009 02:26 PM 



bcc 



Subject Re: FW: Lisa Jackson Event around the EGA conference- 
Quick Q 



I think it's fine. 



Michelle DePass 



Quick Question.. You are confirmed f.. 



02/17/2009 10:56:07 AM 



From. 
To: 
Date: 
Subject. 




Quick Question. . 

You are confirmed for the Environment America Foundation Reception next 
Tuesday at 4:30pm. Any issue with me being on the invite, as I am getting 
ready to be nominated and all? They asked below. 

More background-The reception is held in conjunction with the Environmental 
orantmakers Association annual Federal Policy Briefing. I am on the Board of 
&ir< -tora t the Environmental Grant-makers Associat ion (at least until I have 
t . resign at conf irmat ion) . So, either way, I will be there. 

I don't have to get involved tha$ way and ran easily say "no" but on the 

ther hand, ir ruld be strategic to solidify the connection with the 
I andatoita in tnat arena, 3C when I am strategizing with them in the future, 
they >;n_.w that it is coming straight fro* the top at EPA. 



In this exchange, top level EPA leadership planned how to use DePass' s position on the 
Board of Directors of EGA, her imminent employment at EPA, and her relationship with 
Administrator Jackson, to enhance her leverage with EGA. Jackson supported the plan, despite 
the ease with which DePass could have withdrawn from sponsoring the event to eliminate the 
conflict of interest. Notably, other sponsors of the event included Jessica Bailey and Michael 
Northop from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, as well as Eric Heitz and Charlotte Pera from the 
Energy Foundation. 144 The Committee uncovered another instance where DePass was taking 
advantage of her EPA appointment to benefit her environmental colleagues. Specifically, in 
May 2009 - after her nomination to EPA was announced - DePass emailed Jackson asking her to 
"do a drive-by" at a Grist event. 145 At the time, DePass was a Grist board member 146 and noted 
"It is my last Grist function as a board member. . ..but this will be fun. . . I invited the CEQ posse 



144 Email from Rob Sargent to Michelle DePass (January 26, 2009; 01:53PM EST)(on file with Committee) 

145 Email from Michelle DePass to Richard Windsor (May 27, 2009; 05:05 PM EST) (on file with Committee). 

146 Kate Sheppard, Grist Board Member Appointed to Obama Administration, GRIST, Mar. 19, 2009, 
http://grist.org/article/2009-03-grist-board-member-appointed-to/ . 



Thoughts? 
Michelle 



24 



too." These email exchanges confirm the close relationships between the foundations, 
environmental activist groups and the Obama Administration. 

A review of senior Obama EPA officials also demonstrates that the Agency values and 
seeks out individuals with ties to large environmental groups for key leadership positions. The 
groups cultivating the most EPA staff mirror the groups garnering the lion's share of donations 
from the Billionaire's Club. These groups include the Natural Resources Defense Council 
(NRDC), Sierra Club, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), Public Interest Research Groups 
(PIRGs), Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and Center for American Progress (CAP). 

Indeed, the NRDC staff absorbed by the Obama Administration and Capitol Hill 
Democrats in 2009 was referred to as the "NRDC mafia" because they occupied so many key 
positions throughout the democratically controlled government. 148 While at EPA, these officials 
were able to advance their activist agenda, this time with full support of the government. 

Former activists have held or are currently holding senior positions throughout the 
Agency - in its Washington D.C. headquarters and in its ten regional offices across the country. 
The revolving door includes activists from private foundations as well as public charities. These 
officials include: 

• Bob Perciasepe - Deputy Administrator of the EPA. He was the former Chief Operating 
Officer of the National Audubon Society. He recently announced his impending 
departure from the Agency to become President of the Center for Climate and Energy 
Solutions, formerly the Pew Center for Climate Solutions. 149 Watchdog groups 
uncovered evidence that Perciasepe used his personal email to communicate with 
environmentalists in violation of EPA policy. 150 

• Nancy Stoner - Acting Administrator/Deputy Administrator for the Office of Water. She 
served as the Co-Director and Senior Attorney for the NRDC's Water Program from 
1999 until 2010. In her capacity at the Office of Water at EPA, she was accused of 
sharing livestock operators' personal information with environmental groups, including 
NRDC. 151 

• Judith Enck - Region 2 Administrator. She was previously Senior Environmental 
Associate at NY-PIRG, Executive Director of the Environmental Advocates of New 
York, and President of Hudson River Sloop Clearwater. Enck has been accused of 
several inappropriate and unethical actions, which this report discusses in detail. 



Darren Samuelsohn, 'NRDC Mafia 7 finding homes on Hill, in EPA, New York Times, March 6, 2009, 
http://www.nytimesxom/gwire/2009/03/06/06greenwire-nrdc-ma (last 
accessed July 25, 2014). 

149 Josh Hicks, EPA loses bridge builder with Bob Perciasepe 's departure as No. 2, The WASHINGTON POST, July 
18, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com 

perciasepes-departure-as-no-2 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

150 Ben Geman, Top EPA official used personal email address, THE HILL, Feb. 19, 2013, 
http://thehill.com/policy/energy-environment/283821-top-epa-official-used-personal-email-address. 

151 Victoria G. Myers, EPA Makes a Mess, PROGRESSIVE FARMER, August 2013, http://dtnpf- 
digital.com/article/EPA_Makes_A_Mess/1566949/185130/article.html (last visited July 25, 2014). 



25 



Watchdog groups also uncovered Enck using her personal email to communicate with 
environmentalists in violation of EPA policy. 152 

• Jared Blumenfeld - Region 9 Administrator. He was formerly employed by the Sierra 
Club Legal Defense Fund as well as the NRDC. 153 He was recently caught lying to the 
EPA's Office of Inspector General about using his personal email account for work 
purposes, in violation of EPA policy. 154 

• Joseph Goffman - Associate Assistant Administrator and Senior Counsel for the Office 
of Air and Radiation. He is the chief architect of EPA's proposed Existing Source 
Performance Standards for existing power plants, 155 which has been criticized as relying 
too heavily on a draft produced by the NRDC. 156 Goffman previously held a senior 
policy position at Environmental Defense (formerly of EDF). He also served on the 
Board of Directors for the Environmental Resources Trust, a nonprofit organization he 
and two colleagues founded with the help of EDF. 

• Francesca Grifo - Scientific Integrity Official. She previously served as senior scientist 
and director of the UCS, where she was heavily criticized for her lack of scientific 
integrity. 158 In her current role, she has failed to provide competent responses to the 
Committee related to instances of scientific misconduct at the EPA. 159 



• Matthew Tejada - Director of the Office of Environmental Justice. He previously 

worked for TX-PIRG 160 and led Air Alliance Houston, an activist organization focusing 
specifically on environmental justice issues, 161 for over five years. 162 Air Alliance of 



Michael Bastasch, Emails: Another top EPA official used private email account to aid environmentalists, THE 
DAILY CALLER, Feb. 24, 2014, http://dailycallerxom/2014/02/24/emails-another-top-epa-official-used-private- 
email-account-to-aid-environmentalists/. 

153 Meeting of the Minds Speaker: Jared Blumenfeld, MEETING OF THE MINDS, http://cityminded.org/speaker/jared- 
blumenfeld (last visited July 25, 2014). 

154 See Letter from Hon. David Vitter, Ranking Member, S. Comm. on Env't & Public Works, to Hon. Arthur 
Elkins, Inspector Gen., U.S. Envt'l Prot. Agency (Feb. 20, 2014). 

155 Carbon Pollution Emission Guidelines for Existing Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units, 79 Fed. 
Reg. 34829 (proposed June 18, 2014) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 60). 

156 Coral Davenport, Taking Oil Industry Cue, Environmentalists Drew Emissions Blueprint, New YorkTmes, July 
6, 2014, http://www.nytimes.corn/2014/07/07/us/how-environmentalists-drew-blueprint- for-obama-emissions- 
rule.html (last visited July 25, 2014). 

157 Coral Davenport, E.P.A. Staff Struggling to Create Pollution Rule, NEW YORK TIMES, Feb. 4, 2014, 
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/05/us/ep 

(last visited July 25, 2014). 

158 Henry I. Miller, EPA's New Overseer Of 'Scientific Integrity': The Blind Leading The Blind, FORBES, Dec. 4, 
2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/henrymiller/2013/12/04/epas-new-o verseer-of-scientific-integrity-the-blind- 
leading-the-blind/ 

159 Letter from Hon. David Vitter, Ranking Member, S. Comm. on Env't & Public Works, to Dr. Francesca Grifo, 
Science Integrity Official., U.S. Envt'l Prot. Agency (Mar. 17, 2014); Letter from Dr. Robert Kavlock, Interim 
Science Advisor, U.S. Envt'l Prot. Agency, to Hon. David Vitter, Ranking Member, S. Comm. on Env't & Public 
Works (July. 22, 2014). 

160 Global Community Monitor, New Director for Office of Environmental Justice, Matt Tejada, Jan. 11, 2013, 
http://www.gcmonitor.org/new-director-for-office-of-environmental-justice-matt-tejada/. 

161 About Air Alliance Houston, Air ALLIANCE HOUSTON, http://airalliancehouston.org/about_air_alliance_houston/ 
(last accessed July 25, 2014). 



26 



Houston publically partners with EDF, NRDC, Sierra Club, and Public Citizen, among 
other far-left environmental organizations. He was brought to the attention of former 
EPA Region 6 Administrator Al Armendariz in March 2010 by Elena Craft, of EDF. 164 
Ironically, at the time he was appointed to the EPA, he was actually suing EPA, along 
with other environmental activists on the basis of environmental justice concerns. 165 

Many former Obama EPA officials also worked with the far-left environmental 
movement and the Billionaire's Club. Today, many of them work for their former employer or 
elsewhere in the environmental movement. 



• Bob Sussman served as Senior Policy Counsel at EPA under Administrator Jackson. He 
was a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress (CAP) before he was tapped to 
co-chair the EPA Transition Team in 2008. 166 The Committee has obtained documents 
which demonstrates he vetted potential EPA employees based on whether they, "had the 
support of environmental justice leaders," and their connections to environmental groups, 
like the NRDC. 167 Watchdog groups also uncovered Sussman using his personal email to 
communicate with environmentalists in violation of EPA policy. 

• Michelle DePass was the former Assistant Administrator for the Office of International 
and Tribal Affairs. Prior to her appointment at EPA, she worked for the Ford Foundation 
as an Environment and Community Development Program Officer and served on the 
Board of the EGA. For a period of time between her confirmation by the U.S. Senate and 
official start date at EPA, she continued her role at the Ford Foundation, effectively 
operating as an employee of both EPA and the private organization simultaneously. 
DePass resigned her position shortly after being held accountable by the Committee. 169 



• Dr. Al Armendariz was the Region 6 Administrator from 2009 to 2012. Prior to his 
appointment to EPA, he worked for the Environmental Integrity Project (EIP) and was a 

170 

consultant serving as an expert witness for the Sierra Club. Soon after assuming his 
position at EPA he sought out and hired two environmental advocates he had previously 



Tejada worked as the Executive Director of Air Alliance Houston for five years and five months. See Matthew 
Tejada's Profile, LinkedIn, http://www.linkedin.eom/pub/matthew-tejada/3/959/lb4 (last accessed July 24, 2014). 

163 Our Partners, Am ALLIANCE OF HOUSTON, http://airalliancehouston.org/content/our-partners (last visited July 25, 
2014). 

164 Email from Elena Craft to Al Armendariz (Mar. 1, 2010; 12:03 PM EST) (on file with Committee). 

165 Ron Arnold, Meet the little nobody from Texas with big power at EPA, WASHINGTON EXAMINER, June 13, 
2013, http://washingtonexaminer.com/ron-arnold-meet-the-little-nobody-from-texas-with-big-power-at- 
epa/article/2531854 

166 Georgetown University Law Center, Profile of Robert M. Sussman, 
https://www.law.georgetown.edu/faculty/sussman-robert-m.cfm (last visited July 28, 2014) 

167 Email from Macon Cowles to Bob Sussman (Feb. 13, 2009; 01:25 pm EST)(on file with Committee). 

168 Letter from Hon. David Vitter, Ranking Member, S. Comm. on Env't & Public Works, and Hon. Darrell Issa, 
Chair of the H. Comm. On Oversight & Gov't Reform, to Michelle DePass, U.S. Envt'l Prot. Agency (May. 15, 
2013) (on file with Committee). 

169 Letter from Hon. Arvin Ganisan, Assoc. Admin., U.S. Envt'l Prot. Agency, to Hon. David Vitter, Ranking 
Member, S. Comm. on Env't & Public Works (June 5, 2013). 

170 Juliet Eilperin and Lisa Rein, EPA official who compared enforcement to crucifixion resigns, WASHINGTON 
POST, Apr. 30, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/epa-official-who-compared- 
enforcement-to-crucifixion-resigns/2012/04/30/gIQAucsisT_story.html. 



27 



worked with at EIP - Chrissy Mann and Layla Mansuri. Mann was an attorney at EIP 
who later served as Armendariz's special assistant at EPA; and Mansuri served as EPA's 
Region 6 Associate Administrator previously worked for Public Citizen, EDF, and EIP. 
Both Mann and Mansuri had actively litigated against the Houston, Texas, petroleum 
coke fueled power plant, Las Brisas Energy Center (LB EC), while Armendariz prepared 
testimony against LB EC. While at EPA, they collectively worked on denying LB EC's 
permit. 172 The Committee released a recording in 2012 revealing Armendariz stating 
how he would "crucify" an energy company to set an example for the rest of the oil and 
gas industry. 173 He was scheduled to testify before Congress about his controversial 
statement, but he skipped the Congressional hearing in favor of an interview with the 
Sierra Club. 174 Soon thereafter, he resigned from EPA and is now Senior Campaign 
Representative for Sierra Club's Beyond Coal Campaign. 

• James Martin was the former Region 8 Administrator for EPA. Earlier in his career he 
was a senior attorney at EDF. He resigned his position at EPA after it became public he 
was using his personal email account to communicate with environmentalists, including 
Vicki Patton of EDF, about official agency business in violation of official EPA 
policy. 175 

• Michael Goo was the former Associate Administrator of EPA. He was the legislative 
director for NRDC before he worked for then-Congressman Ed Markey (D-MA). While 
at EPA, he frequently met environmental groups at a coffee shop near EPA 
headquarters. Among the individuals he met with were John Coequyt, head of Sierra 
Club's "Beyond Coal" 177 campaign and Lena Moffitt, who worked for Sierra's "Beyond 
Oil" 178 campaign. Based on a series of emails between the parties, it appears they were 
discussing strategies to defeat the Keystone XL pipeline and the permitting of coal fired 

i 179 

power plants. 



Letter from Hon. David Vitter, et.aL, Ranking Member, S. Comm. on Env't & Public Works, to Hon. Gina 
McCarthy, Assist. Admin., U.S. Envt'l Prot. Agency (Mar. 12, 2013). 

172 Id. 

173 Dina Capiello, Al Armendariz, EPA Official, Resigns Over 'Crucify' Comment, HUFFINGTON POST, Apr. 30, 
2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/3^ 

174 Amy Harder, EPA Official Felled by 'Crucify' Comment Skips House Hearing, Visits Sierra Club, NATIONAL 
JOURNAL, June 7, 2012, http://www.nationaljournal.com/energy/epa-official-felled-by-crucify-comment-sldps- 
house-hearing-visits-sierra-club-20 120607 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

175 Judson Berger, EPA official scrutinized over emails to resign, FOX NEWS, Feb. 19, 2013, 
http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/02/19/epa-official-scrutinized-over-emails-to-resign (last visited July 25, 
2014). 

176 John Roberts, 'Secret dealing'? Emails show cozy relationship between EPA, environmental groups, Fox News, 
Jan. 22, 2014, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2014/01/22/emails-show-cozy-relationship-between-epa- 
environmental-groups-on-keystone-coal (last visited July 28, 2014). 

177 Emails from EPA, environmental officials, FOX NEWS, 

http://www.foxnews.com/politics/interactive/20 14/0 1/22/emails-from-epa-environmental-officials/ (last visited July 
24,2014). 

178 Lena Moffitt's profile, LinkedIn, https://www.linkedin.com/pub/lena-moffitt/61/418/b55 (last visited July 24, 
2014). 

179 Roberts, supra note 177. 



28 



• Robert Brenner was the former Deputy Assistant Administrator to Gina McCarthy in the 
Office of Air and Radiation. Soon after the EPA Office of Inspector General (EPA OIG) 
targeted Brenner for accepting illegal gifts he promptly retired from the Agency. 180 He 
was also a central figure in the embarrassing saga of John Beale, the fake CIA Agent 
employed by the EPA. 181 Brenner left EPA to join Duke University's Nicholas Institute 

1 82 

for Environmental Policy Solutions. He is also on the Board of Directors for the 
Center for Clean Air Policy, along with another former EPA official, David Hawkins, 
who is currently at NRDC. 183 

b. The Obama EPA Helps to Fund the Far-Left Environmental Groups 

In addition to providing insider access to important policy decisions, it appears activists 
now at EPA also funnel government money through grants to their former employers and 
colleagues. The Committee's research demonstrates that oftentimes EPA contributes to the 
bottom line of green groups through grants. Accordingly, a grant from EPA or another 
government agency is particularly valuable to a 501(c)(3) as nonprofits are required to obtain 
one-third of its funding from the public to maintain its tax-exempt status. A grant from EPA 
contributes to that goal, without limitation. 184 

Over the last ten years EPA has awarded nearly $3 billion in grants to nonprofit 
organizations. 185 Based on a Committee review of the EPA grants database, the Obama EPA has 
given more than $27 million in taxpayer funded grants to major environmental groups. Notably, 
NRDC and EDF - two key activists groups with significant ties to senior EPA officials - have 
collected more than $1 million in funding each. 



EPA's Top Five Environmental Nonprofit Grantees 



Grantee 


Number of Grants 


2009-2014 Awards 


ALA* 


36 


$13,970,196 


EDF 


2 


$1,099,839 


NRDC 


2 


$1,877,907 


NWF* 


2 


$64,734 


Nature Conservancy* 


24 


$10,700,796 


TOTAL 


66 


$27,713,472 


An (*) denotes inclusion oi 


" grants to state or regional c 


lapters. 



The American Lung Association (ALA) receives the most Obama-EPA grants among 
environmental groups the Committee reviewed, totaling nearly $14 million since 2009. Over the 



Secret Agent Man? Oversight of EPA's IG Investigation of John Beale: Hearing Before the H. Comm. on 
Oversight & Gov't Reform, 113th Cong. (Oct. 1, 2013). 

181 Id. 

182 Duke Nicholas Institute, Former High-Ranking EPA Official to Join Duke, Oct. 27, 2011, 
http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edU/news/former-high-ranking-epa-official4o-join-duke#.U (last visited 
July 28, 2014). 

183 Center for Clean Air Policy, profile of Rob Brenner, http://ccap.org/people/rob-brenner-retired/ (last visited July 
28,2014). 

184 26 C.R.F. §1.509 (2012). 

185 EPA Grants Award Database, All Awards to Nonprofits, 

http://yosemite.epa.gov/oarm/igms_egf.nsf/Reports/Non-Profit+Grants?OpenView (last visited July 28, 2014). 

29 



last ten years, ALA has racked in $20,405,655 in EPA grants. Yet, ALA has been a main 
litigant against EPA, frequently suing the Agency only to reach a cozy settlement agreement 
while taxpayers foot the bill for ALA's legal fees. 187 Moreover, since federal agencies are 
forbidden from lobbying, one scholar suggests that ALA acts as a surrogate to lobby for the EPA 
in exchange for generous grants, stating: 

To survive, if not thrive, the ALA needed a source of revenue. The solution: 
selling its reputation as an organization only interested in promoting and 
protecting 'the public interest' to government agencies and commercial firms. By 
lobbying and engaging in political advocacy under the halo of 'charity,' the ALA 
sought to revive its fortunes. 188 

Mainstream environmental groups are not the only ones to benefit from EPA grants. The 
Obama EPA gives grants to regional and less-well-known extreme groups, especially those 
operating within the environmental network described in this report. For example, the Louisiana 
Bucket Brigade (LABB) is an environmental activist group not only connected to the 
environmental network, but also has close ties to the EPA. Formerly a project of the Tides 
Foundation, LABB received over $400,000 in funding from the Marisla Foundation between 

1 89 

201 1 and 2012. Further, LABB received significant funding from EPA under former 
Administrator Lisa Jackson. Jackson grew up in a New Orleans, Louisiana neighborhood and 
has close ties to the state. 190 

Most of LABB' s efforts focus on attacking oil and petrochemical refineries through 
"citizen science" efforts primarily funded by the EPA. The Louisiana Department of 
Environmental Quality brought a series of concerns to EPA headquarters and Region 6, detailing 
how LABB's activities are not based on "sound science and legally defensible facts." 191 Even 
so, EPA continued to award LABB grants. From 2010 to 2012, EPA awarded LABB $194,500 
in grants. 192 For fiscal year 201 1, EPA's $100,000 grant on June 11, 2012, constituted more than 
80% of LABB's government funding and almost half of the group's one-third public funding 

193 

requirement. 



Karen Kerrigan, Fact of the Day: EPA and Lung Association: Time for Transparency, The Center for Regulatory 
Solutions (June 5, 2014). 

187 Committee on the Environment and Public Works Minority Staff, EPA's Playbook Unveiled: A 
Story of Fraud, Deceit, and Secret Science (March 19, 2014), available at 
http://www.epw.senate.gov/public/index.^^ 

e6848467832a (last accessed July 25, 2014). 

188 James T. Bennett, Pandering for Profit: The Transformation of Health Charities to Lobbyists, GEO. MASON 
DEPT. OF ECON., Paper No. 1 1-54, p. 20. 

189 Ron Arnold, Meet the little nobody from Texas with big power at EPA, THE WASHINGTON EXAMINER, June 
13, 2013, http://washingtonexaminer.com/ron-arnold-meet-the-little-nobody-from-texas 
epa/article/2531854. 

190 Administrator Lisa Jackson Biography, Env'tProt. Agency, http://blog.epa.gov/administrator/bio (last visited 
July 24, 2014). 

191 Letter from Peggy M. Hatch, Secretary, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, to Lisa Jackson, 
Administrator, US Environmental Protection Agency (Oct. 26, 2012). 

192 Grant Awards Database, U.S. Env'tProt. Agency, http://yosemite.epa.gov/oarm/igms_egf.nsf/Reports/Non- 
Profit+Grants?OpenView. 

193 Louisiana Bucket Brigade, IRS Form 990, 201 1. 



30 



c. Questionable Behavior by Regional Administrator Judith Enck 



Region 2 Administrator Judith Enck appears to be inappropriately and personally 
involved in the allocation of EPA grants. Such involvement runs afoul of the Standards of 
Ethical Conduct, which require all EPA employees to act impartially and not give preferential 



treatment to any private organization. 



194 



JUDITH ENCK'S INVOLVEMENT 
WITH EL PUENTE 

March 2012: Enck meets with El Puente 
and Rockefeller Family Fund (RFF) 
2012: Tides gives El Puente $7,000 grant 
2012: RFF gives El Puente $45,000 grant 
August 2012: EPA awards $25,000 grant 
to El Puente 

Sept. 2012: Enck meets with El Puente and 
RFF 

Jan. 2013: Letter from EPA notifying El 
Puente of failure to comply with disclosure 
requirements and possibility EPA may 
"terminate assistance" 
March 2013: El Puente cites conversation 
with Enck and requests an extension to 
comply with disclosure requirements 
Aug. 2013: Second letter from EPA to El 
Puente regarding its failure to follow 
disclosure requirements 
Nov. 2013: EPA finally terminates grant 



The Committee received reports of two separate 

instances where Enck gave EPA grantees 
special treatment. 



In one case, Administrator Enck 
required a subordinate to search for grants 
that could benefit an activist group, El 
Puente. 195 Allegedly, El Puente violated 
the terms of an EPA award, but Enck 
intervened on the group's behalf, delaying 
termination of the grant by ten months. 196 
Both the RFF and Tides Foundation 
provided grants to El Puente over the same 
period of time Enck advocated for EPA 
grants to the group. 197 The Committee also 
has proof Enck attended meetings between 
El Puente and representatives from the 
RFF. 

Moreover, the Committee received 
evidence that Enck used her position to 
improperly funnel federal grants to 
environmental groups, with whom she has 
a personal connection. Between August 2010 and September 2012, the Hudson River Sloop 
Clearwater, Inc. received a series of grants from Region 2. Before Enck joined EPA, she was the 
president of Hudson River Sloop Clearwater. Since Enck assumed her position as Region 2 
Administrator in 2009, the organization has received four EPA grants totaling $159,342. 198 
These grants are listed in the chart below. 



Code of Conduct for Directors and Staff of the Envt'l Prot. Agency, U.S. Envt'lProt. Agency, 
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search^ 

porate/EPA_code_of_business_conduct.doc+&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us (last visited July 25, 2014). 

195 Email from Anhthu Hoang to Paula Zevin, Apr. 27, 2012: 2:41 P.M. (on file with the Committee) 

196 Letter from Roch Baamonde, Chief Grants and Audit Management Branch, to Frances Lucerna, Nov. 26, 2013 
(on file with the Committee) 

197 [A] Rockefeller Family Fund, IRS Form 990, 2012 
[B] Tides Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

198 EPA Grants Award Database, "Hudson River Sloop Clearwater," 

http://yosemite.epa.gov/oarm/igms_egf.nsf/allgrantsnarrow7Search View&Query=(+hudson+river+sloop+)&Search 
Order=l&SearchMax=250&SearchWV=false&SearchFuzzy=false (last visited July 28, 2014). 

31 



EPA Grants to Enck's Former Employer under her EPA Tenure 



Purpose: 


Awarded: 


Amount: 


Environmental Justice 


08/31/2010 


$25,000 


Superfund 


12/14/2010 


$50,000 


Water 


08/03/2012 


$59,855 


Environmental Justice 


09/17/2012 


$24,487 



This highly questionable behavior demonstrates how an EPA official with inappropriate 
ties to far-left groups and their foundations can use her position to benefit the environmental 
movement at the expense of taxpayers. In fact, the EPA OIG has confirmed that Enck is the 
subject of an OIG inquiry. 199 Moreover, in its May 13, 2014, Summary of Closed Employee 
Integrity Cases, the EPA OIG revealed two other cases regarding ethical concerns with senior 
EPA officials. 200 One case involved a Presidential appointee violating their ethics pledge on 13 
occasions by communicating and/or meeting with two prohibited organizations regarding their 
EPA work. 201 Another case involved a political appointee who on two occasions violated the 
rules of ethics for federal employees by accepting a gift of travel and a flight in a private jet from 
a registered lobbyist. 202 



199 Email from Staff, Office of Inspector Gen., U.S. Envt'l Prot. Agency, to Rep. Staff, S. Comm. on Env't & Public 
Works (June 09, 2014; 04:24 PM EST). 

200 http://www.epa.gov/oig/reports/2014/OI-Summary_of_Closed_Employee_Integrity_Cases_3-3 l-14.pdf 

201 Id. 

202 Id. 

32 



IV. Billionaire's Club in Action: Case Studies of Services Rendered 

Far-left environmental activists, while benefiting from nonprofit status, essentially sell a 
product to wealthy foundations who are seeking to drive policy and political outcomes. That 
transaction is driven by a close knit network of activists and funders who strategically channel 
their money into supported organizations. The Committee has found that some of the most 
valued services these activists provide the Billionaire's Club includes promulgation of 
propaganda which creates an artificial echo chamber; appearance of a faux grassroots movement; 
access to nimble and transient groups under fiscal sponsorship arrangements; distance/anonymity 
between donations made by well-known donors and activities of risky activist groups; and above 
all - the ability to leverage tens of millions of dollars in shady foreign funding. 

a. Activists Groups Provide Billionaire's Club with Propaganda 

This section documents how the Billionaire's Club both finances the creation of 
"science" and other studies, then pays nonprofits specialized in media relations to report on the 
"discovery." Foundations often finance research that bolsters their desired policy outcome. 
Subsequently, another outlet they also fund will "report" on the new study and other affiliated 
"news outlets" will also report on it, in an effort to increase visibility. One could easily be fooled 
into believing that the study was independent and disinterested, covered by unbiased media 
outlets. However, this perception is far from the truth. 

In addition to peddling studies that bolster a policy position, the foundation-backed 
"news outlets" use their position to rebut any criticism of the integrity of the report. Through 
this process, foundations can both inject an environmental issue into the news stream, and frame 
the way the public perceives it. 

i. The Park Foundation: Buying and Spreading Anti-Fracking Science 

One of the best examples of this foundation-manifested echo chamber arises from the 
Ithaca, New York-based Park Foundation. It reported assets of over $366 million in 2012, 203 and 
is run by Adelaide Park Gomer, who inherited her fortune from her late father, Roy Park. 204 She 
is a fierce and vocal critic of fracking, especially in the Marcellus Shale region in New York and 
Pennsylvania. 205 Her hostility to fracking likely arises from Park's location in the Marcellus 
Shale region. Her environmental views are radical, as evidenced in a very strongly worded 
poem, Ballad of a Dying Planet, in which she laments the "rape and pillage" of the earth by 
mankind. 206 In March 2010, the Park Foundation gave $100,000 to Cornell University (also 
located in Ithaca) for "A Comprehensive Economic Impact Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction in 
the Marcellus Shale." 207 In June 2010, Park gave Cornell another $35,000 for "a study 



2Uj Park Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

204 Bill Chaisson, Legacy Lives On: Park, Triad foundations continue the work of Roy Park Sr., ITHACA.COM, 
Aug. 15, 2012, http://www.ithaca.co^ (last visited July 
25, 2014). 

205 Mike Soraghan, Hydraulic Fracturing: Quiet foundation funds the 'anti-f racking' fight, E&E PUBLISHING, 
LLC, Mar. 12, 2012, http://www.eenews.net/stories/1059961204 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

206 Adelaide Park Gomer, Ballad for a Dying Planet, EGA JOURNAL at 23, 

http://ega.org/sites/default/files/pub/reports/EGA_Journal_25th_lorez_full.pdf (last visited July 25, 2014). 

207 Park Found. , IRS Form 990, 20 1 0. 



33 



estimating the greenhouse gas consequences of Marcellus Shale gas." According to some 
contemporaneous accounts, ecologist Robert Howarth admitted to meeting with Park 
representatives and agreeing with them to create a report finding that fracking was 
environmentally harmful. 209 

Consequently, Cornell published Howarth' s study in spring 201 1, which found that 
fracking the Marcellus Shale produces more greenhouse gas emissions than coal mining. 210 The 
study was almost immediately discredited by other scientists, and even by environmentalists and 
Howarth' s colleagues at Cornell, based on flaws in the research and data. 211 Despite such 
criticism, Park continues to fund Cornell's anti-fracking research and has given an additional 

$193,229 since 20 10. 212 Park's steady influence over 
Howarth is evident from its 2013 grant of $60,000 for an 
anti-shale gas "evaluation" to the "Howarth and Marino 
Lab Group." 213 

Since the spring 2011 study, Cornell's Park- 
funded anti-fracking efforts have received extensive 
attention from Park-linked far-left environmental media 
sources. Park funded news outlets such as Earth Island 
Journal (who received $31,500 from Park between 2010 
and 2012 214 ) and Yes! magazine (who received $50,000 
from Park between 2010 and 2012 Z1:> ) supported and defended Howarth and his Cornell 
study. In fact in January 2012, long after the controversy erupted, an article in Yes! attacking 
fracking in the Marcellus Shale admiringly referred to Howarth as "co-author of last year's 
landmark Cornell University study, which established the staggering greenhouse-gas footprint of 
fracking." 217 This is but one discreet example of the manufactured echo chamber. 

Another example of Park's paid-for propaganda involves an online news-sharing site 
called the Climate Desk. It describes itself as a "journalistic collaboration dedicated to exploring 



A story reporting on a Park- 
supported anti-fracking study 
was reproduced by a Park- 
funded news organization 
through a Park-funded media 
collaboration, where it was then 
further disseminated by the 
maker of Park-backed anti- 
fracking movies. 



208 Id. 

209 Jon Entine, Killing drilling with farcical ' science', NEW YORK POST, Jan. 24, 2012, 
http://nypost.com/2012/01/24Mlling-drilling-with-farcical-science (last visited July 25, 2014). 

210 Stacey Shackford, Natural gas from fracking could be 'dirtier' than coal, Cornell professors find, CORNELL 
CHRONICLE, Apr. 11, 2011, http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/201 1/04/fracking-leaks-may-make-gas-dirtier- 
coal (last visited July 25, 2014). 

211 Jon Entine, New York Times Reversal: Cornell University Research Undermines Hysteria Contention that Shale 
Gas is "Dirty", FORBES, Mar. 2, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonentine/2012/03/02/new-york-times-reversal- 
cornell-university-research-undermines-hysteria-contention-that-shale-gas-is-dirty (last visited July 25, 2014). 

212 [A] Park Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012 

[B] Grants Awarded, PARK FOUND., http://www.parkfoundation.org/search.php (last visited July 25, 2014). 

213 Grants Awarded - 2013, PARK FOUND., http://www.parkfoundation.org/search.php (last visited July 25, 2014). 

214 Park Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

215 Park Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2010-2012 

216 Sharon Kelly, Oil and Gas Drilling Linked to Smog, EARTH ISLAND JOURNAL, Mar. 8, 2012, 

http ://www.earthisland.org/j ournal/index.php/elist/eListRead/oil_and_gas_drilling_linked_to_smog/ (last visited 
July 25, 2014). 

217 Ellen Cantarow, New York's Little Revolution, YES!, Jan. 25, 2012, http://www.yesmagazine.org/planet/new- 
yorks-little-re volution (last visited July 25, 2014). 



34 



the impact ... of climate change." In reality, it aids the exchange and spread of climate- 
related news stories between generally left-leaning news partners that include Grist, Mother 

219 

Jones, the Huffington Post, Slate, The Guardian and The Atlantic. The Climate Desk 
acknowledges Park is one of its "major funders" 220 and Park's IRS Form-990s and its 2013 
online grants database reflect that Park gave $300,000 to the Climate Desk between 2010 and 
2013. 221 

A review of the online article databases of Climate Desk partners, The Huffington Post, 222 

223 224 225 

Mother Jones, The Atlantic, and The Guardian, show that since 201 1 they have all 
favorably cited Howarth and his work on the effects of fracking. 226 Accordingly, through the 
Climate Desk, Park enabled a coalition of environmentally friendly news groups to share and 
spread stories involving researchers and work paid for by Park. However, Park's influence in 
this situation reaches deeper than simply backing the Climate Desk. Between 2010 and 2013, 
Park gave Grist $95,000 and Mother Jones (through its parent organization, The Foundation for 
National Progress) $170,000. 227 Following the fallout from Cornell's Howarth-led fracking 
report, Grist published an article standing by the report even while admitting it had been 
discredited. 228 Mother Jones published a complimentary story on it soon after the report was 
published, including a noncritical interview with Howarth. 229 Mother Jones continued promoting 
the study even after it was discredited. 230 

Another clear example of Park's purchased propaganda involves Duke University's 
Nicholas School of the Environment. The Institute, which used to employ disgraced bureaucrat 
Robert Brenner, received $50,000 from Park in 201 1 for, "the completion of a study of the 
impact of gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing on water quality . . ." 231 In October 2013, the 
Nicholas School published a report finding that fracking byproducts contaminate drinking water 



218 



219 Id. 

220 Id 



Climate Desk: About, Climate Desk, http://climatedesk.org/about-climate-desk/ (last visited July 22, 2014). 



221 [A] Parks Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012 990s; 



222 



[B] Grants Awarded, PARK FOUND., http://www.parkfoundation.org/search.php (last visited July 25, 2014). 
The Huffington Post Search of "Robert Howarth fracking," 



http://www.huffingtonpost.com/search.php/?q=robert+howarth+fracking (last visited July 22, 2014). 

223 Mother Jones search of "Howarth," http://www.motherjones.com/search/apachesolr_search/howarth (last visited 
July 22, 2014). 

224 The Atlantic search of "Howarth," http://www.theatlantic.com/search/?q=howarth (last visited July 22, 2014). 

225 Bobby Magill, Thousands of fracking wells in Pennsylvania 'may be leaking methane', THE GUARDIAN, June 
20, 20 14, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/20 14/jun/20/fracking-wells-pennsylvania-leaking-methane 

226 See also Inside Climate News, http://insideclimatenews.org/about/our-funders, which is a Park-funded media 
organization that also promoted the Cornell study. Similar to Climate News Desk, it is in partnership with other news 
media outlets, including Bloomberg, the Associated Press, and The Weather Channel; 
http://insideclimatenews.org/about/media-partners. 

227 The Park Foundation, 2013 Grants Database; 

http://www.parkfoundation.org/search.php?coding=group&group=2013&title=2013%20Grants#category_31 

228 Christopher Mims, Maybe f racked natural gas isn't dirtier than coal, after all, GRIST, May 23, 2011, 
http://grist.org/list/2011-05-23-maybe-fracked-natural-gas-isnt-dirtier-than-coal-after-all/. 

229 Kate Sheppard, Natural Gas: Worse Than Coal?, MOTHER JONES, Apr. 12, 2011, 
http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2011/04/natural-gas-worse-coal. 

230 Kate Sheppard, About That Clean Energy Future, MOTHER JONES, Jan. 27, 2012, 
http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/20 1 2/0 1 /about-clean-energy-future. 

231 Park Foundation, IRS Form 990, 201 1 . 



35 



in the Marcellus Shale region. The study was criticized as being at odds with other studies on 
the subject. 233 Although acknowledging receiving thousands of dollars from Park, the study's 
lead researcher denied any Park-related bias. 234 He claimed that Park's money was merely used 
for "field work" and not for the specific purpose of producing a study on shale gas, as Park 
represented to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). 235 

Following the report's release, Climate Desk partners The Guardian and Huffington 
Post 231 immediately published favorable stories on the study. The Guardian's story was 
reproduced by Mother Jones "as part of the Climate Desk collaboration." 238 Filmmaker and well 
known anti-fracking activist Josh Fox posted the Mother Jones' link on his Twitter page, where 
it was spread by Fox's Twitter followers. 239 Fox has received hundreds of thousands of dollars 
from Park to finance his anti-fracking series of documentaries called Gasland. 240 Thus, a story 
reporting on a Park-supported anti-fracking study was reproduced by a Park-funded news 
organization through a Park-funded media collaboration, where it was then further disseminated 
on Twitter by the maker of Park-backed anti-fracking movies. 

it The Schmidt Family Foundation: Peddling Anti-Fracking Science 

The Schmidt Family Foundation, through its 1 1 th Hour Project, is another example of a 
big foundation funding an echo chamber that promotes its propaganda. Schmidt is based in 
California, has reported assets of $312,189,881, and gives mostly to organizations focusing on 
climate change, fracking and other environmental causes. 241 Schmidt's grant philosophy offers a 
strong example of prescriptive grantmaking previously discussed in this report. Its website 
advises: "Please note, all of the Foundation's grantmaking is now done on a strictly invitational 
basis and we will not review proposals received either in the mail or to our email inbox. We 
proactively seek new partnerships based on our program area strategies." 242 



232 Felicity Cams, Dangerous levels of radioactivity found at fracking waste site in Pennsylvania, THE 
GUARDIAN, Oct. 2, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/environm 

fracking- waste-pennsylvania 

233 Wendy Koch, Fracking linked to radioactive river water in Pa., USA TODAY, Oct. 2, 2013, 

http ://www.usatoday .com/story/ne ws/nation/20 1 3/1 0/02/fracking-radioactive- water-pennsylvania/2904829/ 

234 id. 

235 id. 

236 Cams, supra note 233. 

237 Bobby Magill, Fracking Study: Gas Production In Pennsylvania May Be Polluting Creek With Radioactive 
Waste, HUFFINGTON POST, Oct. 2, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/02/fracking-study- 
pennsylvania_n_4030748.html 

238 Id., supra, note 233. 

239 Josh Fox Twitter feed, Oct. 6, 2013, 12:37 P.M., https://twitter.com/gaslandmovie/status/386938386344194049 
(last visited July 22, 2014). 

240 [A] Park Foundation, 2013 Grants Database, 

http://www.parkfoundation.org/search.php?coding=group&group=2013&title=2013%20Grants#category_31 (last 
visited July 22, 2014); 

[B] Jon Campbell, Park Foundation funds anti-fracking groups, DEMOCRAT & CHRONICLE, Apr. 15, 2012, 
http ://roc.democratandchronicle.com/article/20 1 204 1 5/NEWS0 1/304 1 500 1 6/Park-Foundation-funds-anti-fracking- 
groups. 

241 2012 is the most recent I.R.S. Form 990 that is currently available for the Schmidt Family Foundation. 

242 http://www.l lthhourproject.org/grantees. 



36 



In 201 1, Schmidt made a grant of $50,000 to the Environmental Working Group (EWG), 
a Washington, D.C. based environmental research organization, 243 "[t]o support the creation of 
case study on hydro-fracking in CA." 244 EWG's directors include Drummond Pike of Tides 
(Tides Foundation also funds EWG ) and Laura Turner Seydel of the Turner Foundation. In 
February 2012, EWG released a report on fracking entitled "California Regulator: See No 
Fracking, Speak no Fracking." 247 The study's Acknowledgments recognized that funding, "was 
made possible thanks to the generosity of the 1 1 th Hour Foundation, The Park Foundation, the 
Civil Society Institute and EWG's community of online supporters" 248 The below graphic 
depicts the funding stream. 




Funding the Echo Chamber 

2010 through 2012 




Tides Foundation 



Schmidt Family 
Foundation 



Park Foundation 




Environmental 
Working Group 



Grist 



SI 70,000 



Mother Jones 



The report was mostly reported on by outlets backed by Park and Schmidt. In fact, 
Mother Jones covered it favorably in a February 29, 2012 story 249 possibly as a direct result of 
Schmidt's $225,000.00 donation to Mother Jones in 2012 "To support food & environmental 
reporting, public affairs outreach." 250 Schmidt has also donated $850,000 to Grist between 2010 



and 2012. 251 Its 2012 donation of $300,000 to Grist was "To provide general operating support, 



Environmental Working Group; About Us, http://www.ewg.org/about-us/offices (last visited July 22, 2014). 

244 Schmidt Family Foundation Form, IRS Form 990, 2011. 

245 Tides Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2011-2013. 

246 Environmental Working Group; About Us; Board Members, http://www.ewg.org/about-us/board-members (last 
visited July 22, 2014). 

247 Renee Sharp and Bill Allayaud, CALIFORNIA REGULATORS: SEE NO FRACKING, SPEAK NO 
FRACKING (Feb. 2012). 

http://static.ewg.org/reports/2012/fracking/ca_fracking/ca_regulators_see_no_fracking.pdf 

248 Mat p. 3. 

249 Kiera Butler, California Government Has No Idea Fracking Is Happening, MOTHER JONES (Feb. 29, 2012), 
http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2012/02/california-fracking. 

250 Schmidt Family Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

251 Schmidt Family Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2011 & 2012. 

37 



environmental news & commentary on the web." Grist also reported on the EWG study. 
Accordingly, Schmidt, along with Park, are two examples of foundations using their grant 
powers to create news on their environmental interests and then spread the news to the public in 
a manner that supports their views. 

b. Activist Groups Provide Billionaire's Club with Artificial Grassroots 
Movements 

The Committee's review has uncovered evidence that another service provided to the 
Billionaire's Club is the manufacturing of an artificial grassroots movement. "Grassroots" is a 
commonly used and exploited term by far-left organizations. Webster's Dictionary defines 
grassroots as "the ordinary people in a society or organization: the people who do not have a lot 
of money and power." 254 General characteristics of a grassroots movement include natural, 
spontaneous and volunteer-based action that originates locally with citizens who unite around a 
common issue or cause within their community. 255 Environmental groups have misleadingly 
used the grassroots label to gain credibility among the populace and to hide, among other things, 
their substantial funding, well-organized structures and powerful influence. In the case studies 
discussed herein, the movement sprung from the efforts of the Billionaire's Club, and not from 
local concern as is the grassroots' spirit. 

Critically, it is not the citizens' interests that 
drive the movement; rather it is part of a well-funded 
national strategy. In these instances, groups represent 
themselves as local efforts, but the real direction comes 
from agenda-driven far-left elites hundreds of miles 
away on the East and West coasts. This section 
describes ways of achieving the illusion of a grassroots 
movement, including through a mechanism called a 
"fiscal sponsor" and by using a secondary foundation to 
further spread money to activists groups. 

L Fiscal Sponsorships Facilitate Artificial Grassroots Movements to Attack 
Fracking 

In New York and Colorado a pseudo-grassroots effort to attack hydraulic fracturing has 
germinated from massive amounts of funding by three foundations: Schmidt Family Foundation, 
Tides Foundation and Park Foundation. Since each of these foundations is believed to be part of 
the exclusive and nontransparent Environmental Grantmakers Association (EGA), it is no 
surprise they coordinated funding schemes to achieve a desired outcome. Moreover, in typical 



The environmental grassroots 
movement, sprung from the 
efforts of the Billionaire's Club, 
rather than local concerns, in the 
grassroots spirit. 



232 Schmidt Family Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

253 Heather Smith, One California oil town keeps fracking in check — by banning all drilling, GRIST (Mar. 26, 
2014), http://grist.org/climate-energy/carson-city-frack-ban (last visited July 24, 2014). 

254 Webster's Dictionary, "grassroots", http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/grassroots (last visited July 25, 
2014). 

255 Farm Aid, What is grass roots organizing? ', 

http://www.farmaid.org/site/apps/nlnet/content2.aspx?c=qlI5IhNVJsE&b=2723877&ct=38 (last visited July 

28,2014). 



38 



secretive billionaire donor fashion, the foundations' funding was funneled through fiscal 
sponsors. Funding through these intermediary organizations, such as the Sustainable Markets 
Foundation (SMF) and Food & Water Watch, create distance between the wealthy foundations 
and alleged community-based outfits. 

The Committee uncovered two parallel funding schemes with the shared goal of 
replicating environmentalists' anti-fracking efforts from New York to hot-bed Colorado. In New 
York, environmentalists have experienced successes on the anti-fracking front as a temporary 
ban on the practice is currently in place, 256 and just last month the New York Court of Appeals 
upheld two local fracking bans; 257 concurrently, the above three private foundations have doled 
out millions to promote these efforts. 

One scheme, led by the New York-based Park Foundation and California-based Schmidt 
Family Foundation, provides numerous grants to the New York-based SMF, which serves as the 
fiscal sponsor for multiple New York groups engaged in this effort, including Water Defense, 
Frack Action and Artists Against Fracking. During 201 1, SMF gave $147,750 to Water 
Defense. 258 The following year, SMF funneled a $150,000 grant "to support Water Defense" 
from Schmidt. 259 Notably, Water Defense was founded in 2010 by actor Mark Ruffalo, who has 
an estimated net worth of $20 million and was listed on Time Magazines' 201 1 "People Who 
Mattered" for his anti-fracking efforts. 260 In 201 1, SMF gave Frack Action $324,198, with 
$150,000 stemming from Schmidt grants to SMF. 261 Ironically, one of the Schmidt grants 
specified that $100,000 go "to support Frack Action's grassroots campaign fighting for a ban on 
horizontal hydraulic fracturing" 262 (emphasis added). 

However, the mere funding from the California-based Schmidt demonstrates Frack 
Action's campaign is anything but grassroots. In 2012, SMF received $185,000 for Frack Action 

o/ro OA/1 

through grants from Park and Schmidt. While the amount of money funneled to Yoko 
Ono's Artists Against Fracking cannot be identified, as SMF's 2012 IRS Form-990 is 
unavailable, Artists Against Fracking' s now-removed website directs donations to SMF. 265 

Simultaneously, Park and Schmidt formed a parallel effort, along with the CA-based 
Tides Foundation, to funnel money to anti-fracking efforts in Colorado through Food & Water 
Watch. Food & Water Watch was founded in 2005 as an outgrowth of another Ralph Nader- 



Sean Cockerham, New York ruling on fracking bans might send tremors across U.S., MCCLATCHYDC, June 
30, 2014, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/20 14/06/30/23 1963/new-york-ruling-on-fracking-bans.html. 

257 Id. 

258 Sustainable Markets Found., IRS Form 990, 2011. 

259 Sustainable Markets Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

260 Bryan Walsh, People Who Mattered: Mark Ruffalo, Anthony Ingraffea, Robert Howarth, TIME (Dec. 14, 201 1) 

261 Sustainable Markets Foundation IRS Form 990, 2011; The Schmidt Family Foundation IRS Form 990, 2011. 

262 The Schmidt Family Foundation IRS Form 990, 2011. 

263 Park Foundation IRS Form 990, 2012. 

264 The Schmidt Family Foundation IRS Form 990, 2012. 

265 Tom Shepstone , Artists Against Fracking ... and Lobbying Disclosure?, ENERGY IN DEPTH, (Apr. 3, 2013) 
http://energyindepth.org/marcellus/artists-against-fracking-and-lobbying-disclosure/ ; During the research for this 
report, Artists Against Fracking' s website was taken down. 



39 



formed nonprofit, Public Citizen. Food & Water Watch's Executive Director, Wenonah 
Hauter, served as Director of Public Citizen's Energy and Environment Program from 1997 to 
2005, and was a senior organizer for the Union of Concerned Scientists. 267 Notably, the DC- 
based Food & Water Watch is an organization heavily funded by billionaire-backed foundations 
in California and New York, yet extremely active in environmentalist's anti-fracking initiative in 
New York and Colorado. Moreover, Food & Water Watch boasts about the "wave of local 
resolutions, laws and proposals to ban or limit fracking" in New Jersey, Colorado, Michigan, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Specifically in New York, SMF gave Food & Water 
Watch $14,250 in 201 1, 269 and Schmidt contributed $65,000 in 2012, "to support education and 
outreach on fracking in New York." 270 Park donated $590,000 from 2010 to 2013 to Food & 
Water Watch to advocate for anti-fracking rallies in New York. 271 Park's $355,000 grant to 
Food & Water Watch was specifically for New Yorkers Against Fracking 272 - another group not 
recognized by the IRS, but whose website has a link to the donations page of Food & Water 
Watch. 



The same billionaire foundations behind the New York anti-fracking efforts have also 
moved into Colorado through two coalitions - Local Control Colorado and Frack Free Colorado, 
which are directly affiliated with the NY-based groups already discussed. Local Control 
Colorado claims to be, "a coalition of community, consumer and public interest groups from 
across Colorado " 273 (emphasis added) promoting an anti-fracking ballot measure. However, 
they list DC-based Food & Water Watch, which is funded by CA-based Schmidt and Tides, and 
NY-based Park, as part of the coalition. 274 Food & Water Watch is also listed as a partner to 
another member of the Local Control Colorado coalition, Frack Free Colorado (FFC). Self- 
described as a "collaborative, grassroots movement that works to raise awareness about the 

276 

dangers of fracking," FFC's website states the group is "a people's movement that consists of 
concerned citizens, companies . . . and organizations." 277 (emphasis added). However, at least 
two of the organizations listed as a member of FFC 278 - Artists Against Fracking and Food & 



266 Food & Water Watch, About Food & Water Watch, http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/about/ (last visited July 
28,2014). 

267 Meet the Food & Water Watch Staff, FOOD & WATER WATCH, http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/about/who- 
we-are/ (last visited July 25, 2014). 

268 Steven Mufson, How two small New York towns have shaken up the national fight over fracking, THE 
WASHINGTON POST, July 2, 2014. 

269 Sustainable Markets Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2011. 

270 Schmidt Family Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

271 Park Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2010-2012; Park Foundation 2013 Grants Database, 

http://www.parkfoundation.org/search.php?coding=group&group=2013&title=2013%20Grants#category_29 (last 
visited July 25, 2014). 

272 [A] Park Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2012 
[B] Grants Awarded, PARK FOUND., 2013, 
http://www.parkfoundation.org/search.php?coding=group&group=2013&title=2013%20Grants#category_29 (last 
visited July 25, 2014). 

273 Local Control Colorado, Press Release February 24, 2014, http://localcontrolcolorado.org/press-release-february- 
24-2014/ (last visited July 25, 2014). 

274 Id. 

275 Frack Free Colorado, Who We Are, http://www.frackfreecolorado.com/about.html (last visited July 25, 2014). 

276 id. 

271 id. 
2ii u. 



40 



Water Watch - are based in New York and Washington, DC. Interestingly, FFC has reportedly 
tried to hide its partnership with another NY-based organization, Water Defense. 279 

In addition to the funding and partnership ties, these schemes have one key employee in 
common who binds these cross-country efforts: Russell Mendell. Mendell previously worked 
for three of the NY-based organizations - Frack Action, New Yorkers Against Fracking and 
Water Defense. 280 While at Frack Action in November 201 1, Mendell organized a rally of 
activists in front of the White House calling for the rejection of the Keystone XL pipeline. 281 
Mendell was also active in the Occupy Wall Street movement, once stating that Occupy was 
"about linking arms between the various movements . . . there's not a lot that separates the 

282 

environmental movement and Occupy Wall Street." In 2012, Mendell, along with another 
Water Defense employee, Ana Tinsely, left to move across the country and work for FFC 283 in 
an apparent coordinated effort to apply the same activist tactics used in New York to the attack 
on fracking in Colorado. Overall, these schemes illustrate a model with FFC and Local Control 
Colorado "grassroots" coalitions that bind efforts via partnerships with billionaire-backed groups 
that are far from local. These complicated relationships are depicted in the following illustration. 



Randy Hildreth, Frack Free Colorado Maintains Deep Ties to National Activist Organizations, ENERGY IN 
DEPTH, May 29, 2014, http://energyindepth.org/mtn-states/frack-free-colorado-maintains-ties-nation 
organizations (last visited July 25, 2014). 

280 Id. 

281 Colin Sullivan, Occupy Wall Street shows its greener side in weekend shout fest, E&E PUBLISHING, LLC, Nov. 
1, 2011, http://www.eenews.net/stories/1059955786 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

282 Id. 

283 Michael Sandoval, Frack Free Colorado erases ties to Water Defense, THE COMPLETE COLORADO, Nov. 
18, 2013, http://completecolorado.eom/pagetwo/2013/l 1/18/frack-free-colorado-erases-ties-to-water-defense (last 
visited July 25, 2014). 



41 




New York "Grassroots" Movement Shifts to ColoraaN 




Color Key 



Private Foundation 

501(c)3 



Public Charity 

501(c)3 



Direct Contributor 
Fiscal Sponsor 
Partner 

Organization catalogued by Internal 
Revenue Service (IRS) as needing fiscal 
sponsors for tax deductions 



it Virginia Organizing: Appearances are Deceiving 

Virginia Organizing claims to be a " statewide grassroots organization dedicated to 
challenging injustice by empowering people in local communities to address issues that affect 
their lives" (emphasis added); yet money funneled into the organization comes from wealthy 
donors across the country and money disbursed by the organization extends well outside 
Virginia. Its Executive Director is Joe Szakos, a well-known community organizer with 
connections to the Obama Administration. 285 Before establishing Virginia Organizing in 1995, 
he was the coordinator of Kentuckians for the Commonwealth and has written two books, "We 
Make Change" and "Lessons from the Field," which is required reading for students in 
community organizing courses, along with Saul Alinsky's "Rules for Radicals." 286 His wife, 
Kristin Szakos, is a local politician and prominent supporter of President Obama. She was a 



Virginia Organizing, About Us, http://www.virginia-organizing.org/aboutus (last visited July 25, 2014). 

285 Virginia Organizing, Joe Szakos, http://www.virginia-organizing.org/content/joe-szakos (last visited July 25, 
2014). 

286 University of Wisconsin, Community and Environmental Sociology 573 Course Syllabus, http://comm- 
org.wisc.edu/syllabi/cosyllabusll.htm (last visited July 25, 2014). 



42 



delegate at the 2008 convention, and has made campaign appearances with Michelle 
Obama. 288 

Virginia Organizing is remarkable because the supposedly humble grassroots group 
receives millions in donations from major foundations - primarily the Marisla Foundation, which 
gave nearly $1.3 million from 2010 to 2012 and Sea Change, which donated $600,000 in 2010 
and 201 1. 289 They have also received hefty funding from the Tides Foundation, the Rockefeller 
Family Fund, the Park Foundation, as well as others. Additionally, they have established more 
than two dozen fiscal sponsorships, which they dub "partners" on their website and filings. One 
of their sponsored charities is Environmental Health News (EHN), which claims to be an 
independent, nonprofit news organization founded in 2002. Nowhere on its website is the 
relationship with Virginia Organizing advertised, and it is only disclosed on the donation page, 
where they instruct potential donors to make checks payable to Virginia Organizing. 290 

EHN has been generously supported by members of the EGA, as it has received $675,000 
from Marisla between 2010 and 2012 and also lists grants from the Heinz Endowments, the 
Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. 291 Their support 

from the Billionaire's Club might be linked to 
EHN's founder, Pete Myers, who served as director 
at the W. Alton Jones Foundation and is a trustee for 
the Jennifer Altman Foundation, which is believed to 
be a member of EGA. He also serves as a board 
chair of the Heinz III Center for Science, 
Economics, and the Environment. 

Virginia Organizing is also the fiscal sponsor 
for the Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition 
(OVEC) and the Southern Appalachian Mountain 
Stewards. These two groups often work together against coal mining in Appalachia and have 
been litigants in key cases to expand EPA's authority. 292 Accordingly, a group that represents 
itself as a small community based organization is actually led by significant power brokers in the 
far-left environmental community and is heavily funded by the Billionaire's Club. 



Virginia Organizing is the fiscal 

sponsor for the Ohio Valley 
Environmental Coalition and the 
Southern Appalachian Mountain 

Stewards - two groups working 
against coal mining in Appalachia 
suing to expand EPA's authority. 



Krissah Williams Thompson, Delegates, Too, Have Traveled a Long Road to Reach Denver, WASHINGTON 
POST, Aug. 25, 2008. 

288 Chris Graham, Charlottesville: Michelle Obama Talks Change, AUGUSTA FREE PRESS, Sept. 17, 2008, 
http://augustafreepress.com/charlottesville-michelle-obama-talks-change/. 

289 Marisla Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012; Sea Change Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2011. 

290 Environmental Health News, Donate to Environmental Health News, 
https://donatenow.networkforgood.org/1437620 (last visited July 25, 2014). 

291 Environmental Health News, About http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/about (last visited July 25, 
2014). 

292 Oliver Bernstein, Penn Virginia Faces Legal Challenges for Toxic Water Pollution, SIERRA CLUB, Jan. 28, 
2014. 



43 



Hi. Bold Nebraska: Billionaire's Club Disguised as Local Initiative to Oppose 
Keystone XL Pipeline 



Bold Nebraska is a 501(c)(4) nonprofit whose primary cause is opposing the Keystone 
XL pipeline's planned path through Nebraska. It was founded in 2010 by Jane Fleming Kleeb, a 
South Florida native who was educated in Washington, D.C. 293 She first moved to Nebraska in 
2007 294 when she married Scott Kleeb, an energy company CEO who lost bids to represent 
Nebraska in Congress in 2006 and in the Senate in 2008 as a Democrat. Outside of 
Nebraska, Kleeb is clearly the face, voice and driving 
force of Bold Nebraska. She has been prominently 
featured in national media outlets that include The 
New York Times 291 and MSNBC. 298 Nonetheless, the 
organization's website downplays her involvement 
and lists her only as a staff member, while other 
individuals with deeper, more conspicuous Nebraska 
ties serve in leadership roles and on the Board of 
Directors. 299 

Bold Nebraska projects itself as a Nebraska-based and progressively oriented 
organization, proclaiming on its website: "Nebraskans are bold. We are pioneers. We are 
reformers. We are independent. Bold Nebraska is setting out to change the political landscape 
and restore political balance. We are going back to our roots and we need your help to build a 
Bold Nebraska." 300 However, underlying Bold Nebraska's homespun, grassroots facade is a 
significant, growing, well-funded and well-organized financial support network originating from 
wealthy far-left environmental interests thousands of miles away. A brief but revealing portion 
of a May 2014 article on Kleeb in The New York Times Magazine documents both her efforts to 
attract rich out-of-state donors to Bold Nebraska, and her carefully crafted strategy for selling the 
"grassroots" charm of the group to the moneyed elites. It recounts: 

[Kleeb] was in the middle of a fund-raising call with progressive donors, 
including the California billionaire Tom Steyer, who were interested in rural 
organizing and fighting climate change. But Kleeb was careful not to use the word 
'environment' or mention climate change, preferring to talk 'about the land' and 
the rich foreigners putting the country's water at risk. 'Donors crave a much more 



Underlying Bold Nebraska's 
homespun, grassroots facade is a 
well-funded and well-organized 
financial support network 
originating from liberal elite 
interests thousands of miles away. 



l ^ Saul Elbein, Jane Kleeb vs. the Keystone Pipeline, The NeW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, May 16, 2014, 
http://www.nytimes.com/20 14/05/1 8/magazm^ 

294 Conversation: Jane Kleeb, EARTH ISLAND JOURNAL, Summer 2012, 

http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/jane_W (last visited July 25, 2014). 

295 Elbein, supra note 294. 

296 Scott Kleeb' s Profile, LinkedIn, https://www.linkedin.com/pub/scott-kleeb/25/5a6/333 (last visited July 22, 
2014). 

297 Elbein, supra note 294. 

298 Id. 

299 Team, BOLD NEBRASKA, http://boldnebraska.org/team/ (last visited July 22, 2014). 

300 Nebraska Political History, BOLD NEBRASKA, http://ne.pnstate.org/nebraska-political-history/ (last visited July 
22,2014). 



44 



authentic voice,' she explained. 'We have a connection to rural communities that 
many other progressive groups just don't have.' 301 

The irony of Bold Nebraska's grassroots image, as evident in Kleeb's comments, is that it 
is nothing more than a cover for wealthy and distant non-Nebraskan interests who seek to 
advance a political agenda without drawing attention to the fact that they, too, are outsiders with 
little interest in or connection to the state. One of these outsiders is none other than Tom Steyer, 
who has a strong conflict of interest in opposing Keystone XL due to his financial stake in a 
competing pipeline called Kinder Morgan. 302 Despite claiming that he would sell off all interests 
in the Kinder Morgan pipeline by late 2013, it was still unclear as of June 2014 whether Steyer 
followed through on that promise. 303 

Kleeb and Bold Nebraska have succeeded in attracting the attention and deep pockets of 
the big foundations. In 2012, the San Francisco-based Tides Foundation gave it $50,000, and 
Tides' San Francisco-based 501(c)(4) group, The Advocacy Fund, gave $15,000. 304 These two 
donations equaled one-third of Bold Nebraska's total contributions received in 20 12. 305 In 2013, 
Tides Foundation almost doubled its 2012 grant by giving $90,000. 306 

Out-of-state environmental groups have also used Bold Nebraska to influence local 
elections through its New Energy Voter initiative. The program was created to mobilize 
Nebraskans to vote for candidates opposing the Keystone XL's expansion. 307 It makes 
recommendations and endorsements on candidates for local, state and federal elections in 
Nebraska. During the 2012 election cycle, New Energy Voter defined itself as "an effort by 
citizen groups" that included support from the California-based Sierra Club and New York-based 
350.org. 309 Besides the fact that these two big environmental groups are not from Nebraska, and 
not grassroots organizations, the question arises as to whether 350.org, as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, 
exceeded the strict parameters of its tax-exempt status by participating in and advocating for 
political campaigns. 



Elbein, supra note 294. 

302 Tom Hamburger, Tom Steyer' s staff answers questions about his investments and his career change, 
WASHINGTON POST, June 9, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/tom-steyers-staff-answers- 
questions-about-his-investments-and-his-career-change/2014/06/08/ce726cea-ef29-lle3-914c- 
Ifbd0614e2d4_story.html (last visited July 25, 2014). 

303 Carol Leonnig, Tom Hamburger and Rosalind Helderman, Tom Steyer' s Slow, and ongoing, conversion from 
fossil-fuels investor to climate activist, The Washington Post, June 9, 2014, 

http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/tom-steyers-slow-and-ongoing-conversion-from-fossil-fuels-investor-to- 
climate-activist/2014/06/08/6478da2e-ea68-l Ie3-b98c-72cef4a00499_story.html (last visited July 25, 2014). 

304 [A] Tides Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 
[B] Advocacy Fund, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

305 Bold Nebraska, IRS Form 990-EZ 

306 Tides Found., IRS Form 990, 2013. 

307 New Energy Voter Campaign 2014, BOLD NEBRASKA, http://boldnebraska.org/election/ (last visited July 22, 
2014). 

308 Voter Guide: Primary Election May 13, BOLD NEBRASKA, http://boldnebraska.org/primary/ (last visited July 22, 
2014). 

309 Be a New Energy Voter, BOLD NEBRASKA, http://boldnebraska.org/be-a-new-energy-voter/ (July 22, 2014). 



45 



Outside Influence on Bold Nebraska 

2010-2013 



Tides Foundation 

Based in San Francisco, CA 



$2,387,916 



The 

Advocacy Fund 

Based in San Francisco, CA 




Funded 
iii2()12 



New Energy Voter 

A 

Associated with 



^Sien^^ 350.org 



Color Key 



501(c)(3) J ^ 



While Bold Nebraska is essentially a tool for the Billionaire's Club and their allies 
opposed to the Keystone XL pipeline, many in the state remain oblivious to this fact. Moreover, 
President Obama has supported Bold Nebraska and the billionaire funders' efforts by not 
authorizing the pipeline despite broad public opinion favoring its construction. 310 

iv. Activist Organizations Serve as Pass-Throughs, Leveraging Additional 
Influence While Creating the Appearance of Diverse Support 

The Energy Foundation is a prime example of a "pass through" public charity, which 
receives massive amounts of funding from private foundations. The Energy Foundation then 
funds a variety of activist organizations. As opposed to a fiscal sponsor that assesses a fee to 
collect money on behalf of unrecognized groups, a pass through foundation contributes money to 
recognized charities. 



The Energy Foundation was formed as a pass 
through with a $20 million endowment donated by the 
Pew Charitable Trusts, the Rockefeller Foundation and the 
John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. 311 
Currently, the Energy Foundation's website lists the 



As opposed to a fiscal sponsor 
that assesses a fee to collect 
money on behalf of 
unrecognized groups, a "pass 
through" foundation contributes 
money to recognized charities. 



310 Pew Research Center for People & the Press, Continued Support for Keystone XL Pipeline, Sept. 26, 2013, 
http://www.people-press.org/2013/09/26/continued-support-for-keystone-xl-pipeline^ (last visited July 29, 2014). 

311 Duke Sanford School of Public Policy, The Energy Foundation: MacArthur, Pew, Rockefeller, Hewlett, Packard, 
and McKnight Foundations, 1991, http://cspcs.sanford.duke.edu/content/energy-foundation-macarthur-pew- 
rockefeller-hewlett-packard-and-mcknight-foundations-1991 (last visited July 29, 2014). 



46 



following partners: ClimateWorks Foundation, 
Children's Investment Fund Foundation, David and 
Lucile Packard Foundation, Grantham Foundation, 
Lakeshore Foundation, The McKnight Foundation, Oak 
Foundation, Pisces Foundation, Robertson Foundation, 
Schmidt Family Foundation, Tilia Fund, TomKat Fund, 
TOSA Foundation, The William and Flora Hewlett 
Foundation, and Yellow Chair Foundation. 312 

Moreover, the Board of Directors of the Energy 
Foundation consists of individuals that either previously 
or currently serve on the Board of Directors for one of 
its partnering foundations. Such members include Mark 

Burget, who was previously President of ClimateWorks Foundation; Khee Poh Lam, who is also 
a partner of ClimateWorks Foundation Network; 313 and Noa Staryk, who previously sat on the 
board of the McKnight Foundation. 314 



Energy Foundation is a pass 
through utilized by the most 
powerful EGA members to 
create the appearance of a more 
diversified base of support, to 
shield them from accountability 
and to leverage limited resources 
by hiring dedicated 
energy/environment staff to 
handle strategic giving 



In addition to funding from its partners, the Energy Foundation is the largest recipient of 
grants from the foreign-funded Sea Change Foundation; yet it appears the Energy Foundation 
wants to hide donations from Sea Change, as it is not listed as one of the Energy Foundation's 
partners. In fact, in 201 1 Sea Change's $13,966,672 in grants to the Energy Foundation 
provided nearly 15% of the Energy Foundation's total contributions and grants revenue; in sharp 
contrast to a listed partner, Schmidt Family Foundation, who provided $750,000 to the Energy 
Foundation in 201 1. The Energy Foundation, in turn, donates heavily to activist organizations 
and other foundations. As depicted in the table below, million dollar grantees of the Energy 
Foundation include: ALA, Blue Green Alliance, EDF, LCV, NRDC, Sierra Club and UCS. 315 



Energy Foundation Million Dollar Activist Grantees 2010-2012 



$4,500,000 
$4,000,000 
$3,500,000 
$3,000,000 
$2,500,000 
$2,000,000 
$1,500,000 
$1,000,000 
$500,000 
$0 









■ 




JbU jl 







12010 
12011 
2012 



ALA 



Blue Green 
Alliance 



EDF 



LCV 



NRDC Sierra Club 



UCS 



Our Partners, ENERGY FOUNDATION, http://www.ef.org (last visited July 25, 2014). 

313 The Energy Foundation, Board Members, Khee Poh Lam, http://www.ef.org/board/khee-poh-lam/ (last visited 
July 28, 2014). 

314 The Energy Foundation, Board Members, Noa Staryk, http://www.ef.org/board/noa-staryk/ (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

315 Energy Found. IRS Form 990s, 2010-2012. 



47 



These groups are also big dollar grantees of foundations funneling funds into the Energy 
Foundation. For example, the Schmidt Family Foundation donated $50,000 to ALA in 2012, 
$170,000 to Blue Green Alliance in 2012, $1,500,000 to NRDC between 2010-2012 and 
$500,000 to Sierra Club between 201 1-2012; The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation 
donated $600,000 to EDF between 201 1-2013, $375,000 to LCVEF from 2012-2013, $2,425,000 
to NRDC from 2012-2013 as well as $2,520,000 to Sierra Club between 2011-2013; and 
ClimateWorks Foundation donated $80,000 to NRDC in 2012 and $690,000 to UCS in 2012. 
The funding paths and the transfer of money in and around the Energy Foundation are depicted 
graphically below. 



Filtering Funds Through The Energy Foundation 



Hewlett 
Foundation 



Sea Change 
Foundation 




Color Key 



Funds from Climate Works Foundation 
Funds from Sea Change Foundation 
Funds from Hewlett Foundation 
Funds from Paekard Foundation 
Funds from Sehmidt Family Foundation 
Funds from the Energy Foundation 




Public Charity 



Thus, the Energy Foundation is a pass through utilized by the most powerful EGA 
members. They use it to create the appearance of a more diversified base of support, to shield 



48 



them from accountability, and to leverage limited resources by hiring dedicated 
energy/environment staff to handle strategic giving. 

c. Converting Charitable Donations into Political Outcomes 

As previously discussed, foundations, public charities and activist organizations that 
register as 501(c)(3) organizations receive certain tax benefits under the law. In return, there are 
strict limitations on how the money can be spent. For example, as also previously discussed, 
501(c)(3) groups are strictly forbidden from "directly or indirectly participating in, or intervening 
in a political campaign for or against a candidate for political office." 316 Accordingly, the 
Billionaire's Club and activist groups organized as public charities have limited means to 
influence elections without jeopardizing their designated tax exempt status. 

However, the Committee found that in many cases a 501(c)(3) will transfer funds to an 
affiliated 501(c)(4), which can engage in political activity. Under the law, these donations must 
only be used for activities within the permissible scope of the 501(c)(3)'s activities. 317 It is 
uncertain whether the IRS strictly oversees to ensure this requirement is met. This is especially 
true given the enormous and difficult task of tracking and accounting for the vast sums of money 
that pass through several different groups. Although the IRS Form 990s provide space to 
describe the purpose of a group's grant, the descriptions given are often vague and overly broad. 
The circumstances surrounding the flow of money from 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4) groups, and the 
likelihood of lax oversight, raises questions as to whether 501(c)(3) nonprofit foundations and 
charities are indirectly funding political activities. 

L The Billionaire's Club May Take Advantage of Lax Oversight and Vague 
Reporting Requirements 

To better understand how the Billionaire's Club can convert tax deductible donations to 
political outcomes, the Committee examined the donations made to Green Tech Action Fund, a 
501(c)(4) group founded in 2008 318 and affiliated with the Energy Foundation. 319 Green Tech's 
only internet presence is a one-page website that notes its link to the Energy Foundation, its 
nonprofit status, and discourages grant seekers from submitting any grant pitches by advising: 
"Please note, we do not accept unsolicited proposals." 320 



IRS, The Restriction of Political Campaign Intervention by Section 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Organizations, Mar. 5, 
2014, http://www.irs. go v/Charities-&-Non^ 

Intervention-by-Section-501(c)(3)-Tax-Exempt-Organizations (last visited July 24, 2014). 

317 Terry Masters, Can a 501(c)(3) Donate to a 501(c)(4)?, LegalZoom, http://info.legalzoom.com/can-501c3- 
donate-501c4-22494.html (last visited July 24, 2014). 

318 Green Tech Action Fund, IRS Form 990, 2011. 

319 The Green Tech Action Fund, http://greentechfund.org. (last visited July 28, 2014). 



49 



m 



1}. Ucn^l - putitf | 



The Green Tech Action Fund 

The Green Tech Act on Fund is a nonpartisan not-for- profit 
grant making organization. 

Cur goa* b Xa spur big n» markets far dean energy teshpotogies— especially ciergf 
eUderxy and rencvraWe energy. These technologies detver jabs aid cccnorNc 
devel -rrr -r- enhanced energy secuflC), and big p&Juttcn rtdLCton bencftss. 

GTAf Is an rwepentserrfy newporacod organteatJon and has been secogracd by IRS 
as tan-exempt unecr section SCl-cX^) of the tntemar Revenue Cede. It b affheted 
tnengy houidalDon, a charitable ^ancatwn under secbon Wife)! 3). 

Please note, we da no! accept jnsclKited proposal 

Kedla ingjines-; pressiiq nrcrtccMu nd , 1x5 




Source: www.greentechfund.org 



Green Tech's modest webpage masks the fact that it receives millions of dollars from 
green nonprofit foundations and then distributes millions of dollars to 501(c)(4) groups that 
donate to political campaigns. One example involves the flow of money from the Hewlett 
Foundation and Packard Foundation through Green Tech. Between 2010 and 2012, both 
foundations donated hundreds of millions of dollars to ClimateWorks Foundation, a 501(c)(3) 
foundation. ClimateWorks then gave nearly $170 million to the Energy Foundation. 
Hewlett and Packard gave directly to the Energy Foundation. 323 The Energy Foundation then 
gave $5,676,000 to Green Tech, and ClimateWorks gave it $1,520,000. 324 The Energy 
Foundation was incredibly brief, broad and vague in describing the purpose of its 201 1 and 2012 
grants of $1 million, respectively, to Green Tech. The 2011 description states: "To support clean 
energy policies," 325 while in 2012 the purpose is listed as: "To advance clean technology 
markets, especially energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies." 326 

Green Tech, in turn, donated heavily to at least three 501(c)(4) far-left environmental 
activist organizations during the 2010 and 2012 election cycles: the League of Conservation 



[A] William and Flora Hewlett Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

[B] David and Lucile Packard Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

[C] McKnight Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

William and Flora Hewlett Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

[A] Id. 

[B] David and Lucile Packard Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

[A] Energy Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

[B] ClimateWorks Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012 
Energy Found., IRS Form 990, 2011. 

Energy Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 



50 



Voters, Sierra Club, and the BlueGreen Alliance. 327 Those groups gave predominantly, if not 
entirely, to Democrat candidates for office. These relationships are illustrated below. 



2010-2012 



Packard Foundation 



$232,200,000 







Climate Works 
Foundation 


$350,1 


50,000 j 



Energy Foundation 



William & Flora 
Hewlett Foundation 



Color Key 

501(c)(3) 501(c)(4) 




Green Tech | S 500,000 
Action Fund 



Donations in 2010, 2012 
Election Cycles 



League of 
Conserv ation Voters 



Democrats: 2,409,5 
Republicans: S70,567 




Sierra Club 




This dizzying flow of big money raises obvious questions. How can all the money be 
properly accounted for to ensure that the tax laws are followed? How can one be sure, for 
example, that some of the millions of dollars that originated with the Hewlett and Packard 
Foundations did not (directly or indirectly) fund a political candidate for office? It is unclear 
whether the IRS has the resources, or the political will, to carefully track all this money to ensure 
tax laws are followed. What is clear, though, is that this scheme offers ambitious big moneyed 
donors the opportunity to fund political outcomes with tax exempt funds. 



it Activist Public Charities Funnel Money to Political Affiliates 

Many of the large environmental organizations form both 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4) 
nonprofits that are publically advertised as separate and independent entities. In reality, they are 
closely associated groups that transfer money from the Billionaire's Club to nonprofits, and 
eventually into political campaigns. For example, the League of Conservation Voters (LCV) is a 
501(c)(4) group with an affiliated 501(c)(3) nonprofit almost identically named the League of 
Conservation Voters Education Fund (LCV Education Fund). 328 In 2012, LCV Education Fund 



511 Green Tech Action Fund, IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

328 About LCV Education Fund, LEAGUE OF CONSERVATION VOTERS, http://www.lcv.org/about/family-of-orgs (last 
visited July 24, 2014). 



51 



had total assets of just over $8 million and net assets of over $7.3 million. According to LCV, 
LCV Education Fund is "separate from the League of Conservation Voters, with its own mission, 
programs, and Board of Directors." 330 Even so, the two groups are very closely intertwined. 
Forty percent of LCV Education Fund's Board of Directors also serve on LCV's Board of 
Directors. 331 

An examination of the money flow shows not only the interconnectedness between LCV 
and LCV Education Fund, but also the heavy influence of the Billionaire's Club. LCV 
Education Fund received over $9 million from the Sea Change Foundation between 2010 and 
201 1 332 ; over $450,000 from Marisla Foundation between 2010 and 2012 333 ; $370,000 from the 
Rockefeller Brothers Foundation in 2012 ; $105,000 from Rockefeller Family Foundation; 
over $700,000 from the Tides Foundation between 2010 and 20 1 3 336 ; and over $1.3 million from 
the Energy Foundation between 2010 and 2012. Interestingly, 95% of the Energy 
Foundation's giving to LCV Education Fund during that time occurred in the 2010 and 2012 
election years. 338 

In turn, LCV Education Fund gave over $2 million to LCV in both 2010 and 201 1, and 
over $4.6 million in 2012. Tides' 501(c)(4), the Advocacy Fund, and Green Tech Action Fund 
(Energy Foundation's 501(c)(4) group) each gave LCV over $2 million in each of the 2010 and 
2012 elections years. 339 In 2010, LCV gave almost $1 million to their candidates 340 and in 2012, 
LCV gave over $1.4 million to candidates. 341 As of July 2014, LCV has given over $800,000 to 
the 2014 elections. 342 



329 League of Conservation Voters Educ. Fund, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

330 League of Conservation Voters, supra note 329. 

331 About Board of Directors, LEAGUE OF CONSERVATION VOTERS, http://www.lcv.org/about/board (last visited July 
24, 2014) and About Board of Directors, LEAGUE OF CONSERVATION VOTERS EDUCATION FUND, 
http://www.lcvef.org/about/board-of-directors (last visited July 24, 2014). 

332 Sea Change Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2011. 

333 Marisla Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

334 Rockefeller Bros. Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

335 Rockefeller Family Found., IRS Form 990, 2011-2012. 

336 [A] Tides Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2013. 

[B] Tides Found., 2013 Grantee Database, http://www.tides.org/impact/grantees/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

337 Energy Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

338 Id. 

339 [A] Green Tech Action Fund, IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 
[B] Advocacy Fund, IRS Form 990, 2010-2012 

340 Influence & Lobbying: League of Conservation Voters Recipients 2012, OpenSecrets.ORG, 
http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/toprecips.php?id=D000000288&type=P&sort=A&cycle=2012 (last visited July 24, 
2014). 

341 Influence & Lobbying: League of Conservation Voters Recipients 2012, OpenSecrets.ORG, 
http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/toprecips.php?id=D000000288&type=P&sort=A&cycle=2012 (last visited July 24, 
2014). 

342 Influence & Lobbying: League of Conservation Voters Recipients 2012, OpenSecrets.ORG, 
http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/toprecips.php?id=D000000288&type=P&sort=A&cycle=2014 (last visited July 28, 
2014). 



52 



Funneling 



[Money to Camp 



2010 through 2014 



Sea Change j Marisla 
Foundation Foundation 



KBF RFF | 

S3 70.000 SI 05,000 



S9 million 



S450.000 




Tides 
Foundation 

$700,000 



Energy 
Foundation) 

$1 .3 million 



LCV Education Fund 
501(c)(3) 




$6.6 million 




2010 Campaign Donations 

Democrats: Nearly SI million 
Republicans: S42,000 



2014 Campaign Donations 3 * 

Democrats: Over £800,000 
Republicans: SO 



*As of July 20M 



2012 Campaign Donations 

Democrats: Over SI. 4 million 
Republicans: S28,000 



Color Key 

501(c)(3) 



In addition to LCV, the National Resources Defense Council, 343 the Environmental 
Defense Fund, 344 the Sierra Club 345 and 350.org 346 also set up affiliate nonprofit organizations to 
operate in this manner. The large amounts of money, multiple transfers, and questionable 



About the NRDC Action Fund, NRDC ACTION Fund, http://www.nrdcactionfund.org/about (last visited July 24, 
2014). 



345 
346 



About Us, EDF Action, http://www.edfaction.org/about-us (last visited July 24, 2014). 

FAQs, The Sierra Club Foundation, http://www.sierraclubfoundation.org/faqs (last visited July 24, 2014). 

350.ORG, http://350action.org (last visited July 24, 2014). 



53 



regulation strongly suggest that 501(c)(3) environmental groups and foundations are exceeding 
the scope of their tax exempt limits by financially supporting politically active 501(c)(4)s. 

d. Fiscal Sponsorships Provide the Billionaire's Club with Access to Nimble and 
Transient Groups and also Provide Distance from their Hired Hands 

Fiscal sponsorship arrangements provide the Billionaire's Club with access to nimble and 
transient groups to address fast moving political developments. As discussed in this report, fiscal 
sponsors rent out their 501(c)(3) status to outfits that are not recognized by the IRS. This 
arrangement allows foundation funds to flow to activists who would not otherwise qualify to 
receive foundation money as most private foundations have guidelines that explicitly require 
grantees to be recognized as tax-exempt by the IRS. Additionally, as the fiscal sponsor is 
generally a well-known and well regarded nonprofit, the arrangement provides distance between 
the wealthy donor and the actions of their hired hands. 

L Tides Center: The Principal Fiscal Sponsor 

Tides Inc., a group of separate yet closely intertwined organizations, sets the standard in 
inventing the infrastructure behind the fiscal sponsor relationship. Tides heavily funds green 
organizations and its setup provides one stop shopping for the Billionaire's Club. The Tides 
Foundation and the Tides Center are the most prominent affiliates of Tides Inc. The Tides 
Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization based in San Francisco founded in 1976 by Drummond 
Pike, 347 an activist environmentalist with connections to other left-leaning foundations and 
organizations. 348 Tides Foundation reported net total assets of over $135,000,000 in 20 12. 349 It 
takes in large sums of money from other large foundations, including the Hewlett Family 
Foundation, Schmidt Family Foundation, Ocean Conservancy, and Sea Change Foundation. A 
key component of the Tides' operations involves maintaining donor anonymity. 350 

The Tides Center is also a 501(c)(3) organization founded in 1994 and based in San 
Francisco. 351 It promotes itself as "the leading fiscal sponsor in the nation," and boasts of 

352 

sponsoring roughly 230 projects. It receives money from Hewlett, Rockefeller Brothers 
Foundation, Schmidt, Sea Change, Marisla Foundation and Energy Foundation. Both Tides 
Foundation and Tides Center heavily support each other. Between 2010 and 2012, Tides 
Foundation gave over $10 million to Tides Center, 353 and Tides Center gave over $39 million to 
Tides Foundation. 354 It is unclear what purpose the transfer of funds between these two 
organizations serves, other than obscuring the money trail. 



History, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/about/history (last visited July 24, 2014). 

348 Drummond Pike, Ron Arnold's Undue Influence, http://www.undueinfluence.com/drummond_pike.htm (last 
visited July 24, 2014). 

349 Tides Found. IRS Form 990 (2012). 

350 Ben Johnson, Teresa Heinz Kerry: Bag Lady for the Radical Left, FRONTPAGE MAG, Feb. 13, 2004, 
http://archive. frontpagemag. com/Printable. aspx?ArtId= 14 1 66. 

351 Tides Center IRS Form 990 (2012). 

352 Learn About Fiscal Sponsorship at Tides, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/i-want-to/turn-my-vision-ideas-into-a- 
nonprofit-project/learn-about-fiscal-sponsorship-at-tides#3 (last visited July 24, 2014). 

353 Tides Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 

354 Tides Center, IRS Form 990, 2010-2012. 



54 



TOTAL GRANTS BETWEEN TIDES FOUNDATION & TIDES CENTER 2010-2012 




As a prominent and highly active fiscal sponsor, Tides Center exerts the Tides' influence 
both through controlling funding allocations to its sponsored groups, but also through overseeing 
their structures, staff, and activities. Tides Center describes its close, intertwined relationship 
with the groups it sponsors by stating: "Tides' projects are not separate entities or affiliated 
organizations. Because they are an integral part of Tides Center and not separate legal entities, 
projects are able to receive charitable donations and grants available only to tax-exempt 
organizations. Tides Center is legally and financially responsible for all our projects and 
activities." 355 

Groups that Tides Center sponsors are subject to Tides Center's oversight and direction 
in important aspects that include forming a governing board, 356 managing payroll, 357 and 
monitoring risk. 358 Tides Center stresses its hands-on involvement with its sponsored projects by 
stating: "Every Tides Center staff member is invested in the success, growth, and achievement of 
our projects. We continually strive to improve our work and streamline processes so that the 
provision of services to each project is seamless." 359 In return, Tides Center profits through 
charging an amount equaling 9% of its sponsored groups' annual revenues, with a slight 

percentage reduction in later years for revenues ■ ■ 

exceeding $ 1 million. It fa unclear what p urpose the 

transfer of funds between these 
Despite the influence exerted by the Tides two organizations serves, other 

Center's over a group it sponsors, generally their than obscuring the money trail. 

relationship is not always evident from looking at the I 

group. One example is the Story of Stuff project based 

in Berkeley, California. It produces movies, podcasts and other mediums that perpetuate 



Learn About Fiscal Sponsorship at Tides, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/i-want-to/turn-my-vision-ideas-into-a- 
nonprofit-project/learn-about-fiscal-sponsorship-at-tides#2 (last visited July 24, 2014). 

356 Advisory Board Consultation, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/i-want-to/turn-my-vision-ideas-into-a-nonprofit- 
project/learn-about-fiscal-sponsorship-at-tides/service-overview/advisory-board-consultation (last visited July 24, 
2014). 

357 Payroll Management, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/i-want-to/turn-my-vision-ideas-into-a-nonprofit-project/fiscal- 
sponsorship-at-tides/service-overview/payroll-management (last visited July 24, 2014). 

358 Risk Management, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/i-want-to/turn-my-vision-ideas-into-a-nonprofit-project/fiscal- 
sponsorship-at-tides/service-overview/risk-management (last visited July 24, 2014). 

359 Project Relations, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/i-want-to/turn-my-vision-ideas-into-a-nonprofit-project/learn- 
about-fiscal-sponsorship-at-tides/service-overview/project-relations (last visited July 24, 2014). 

360 Costs, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/i-want-to/turn-my-vision-ideas-into-a-nonprofit-project/fiscal-sponsorship-at- 
tides/service-overview/costs (last visited July 24, 2014). 



55 



propaganda on climate change and environmental issues. Its founder, Annie Leonard, has 
been associated with various green groups, including Greenpeace. 363 One if its most notable 
works is a propaganda movie called The Story of Stuff. On its website, Tides Center boasts: 

With over 12 million online views, The Story of Stuff with Annie Leonard is one 
of the most widely viewed environmental-themed short films of all time. Since its 
release in December 2007, The Story of Stuff has been shown in thousands of 
schools, houses of worship, community events, and businesses, and translated into 
10 languages. It reveals the connections, at times hidden, between the 
environmental, social, and economic issues which surround consumerism, and it 
has inspired a global movement. 364 

Nonetheless, there is no mention of the Tides Center on the Story of Stuffs website 
except for a passing reference on a separate "questions" page linked on the donations page that 
confirms that contributions are tax deductible due to the fiscal sponsorship arrangement. 365 









V«l Jkl donjt)o«is lo The SlOry of Slu'« Project , 


HI !., :•, [a* drdu:Cfcl» n lh» Jnll 




We areftso»f sponsored by in* 


iraes Cencer, EiN 94-32131 DO. 




Dt yen* tab 






Van 1 f>.tw lyriwrV imuvpy n* i 


■tor. HI m exher rwlhndt'? 




lan l use nyi 


JeMlMftfr 





"Wr KWp El» 54 Of/ of SuP PrnJriV Thrit ^jmplv y*>! |5Cnwcful 
igcls helped opw ogr *ye» [d IhounitVlenflwl ton;cquirH:t-i 
ct iuying, 41 vvHl *i JuK w*M> rt rr*mt to throw aofrelrwt 




Source: https://storyofstuff.actionkit.com/donate/general_donations/ 



Tides Center-sponsored projects also associate closely with organizations that receive 
money from Tides Foundation. For example, Tides Center fiscally sponsors The Center for 
Environment and Policy (CEP), which conducts research and advocacy associated with 



361 Project Directory, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/community/project-directory (last visited July 24, 2014). 

362 From a Movie to a Movement, Story OF Stuff Project, http://storyofstuff.org (last visited July 24, 2014). 

363 Annie Leonard, STORY OF Stuff PROJECT, http://storyofstuff.org/annie (last visited July 24, 2014). 

364 Stories, Story OF Stuff Project, http://www.tides.org/impact/stories/show/story/single/title/the-story-of-stuff- 



project (last visited July 24, 2014). 
365 Support the Project! 
visited July 24, 2014). 



365 Support the Project!, Story of Stuff Project, https://storyofstuff.actionkit.com/donate/general_donations (last 



56 



SMF only exists on paper and 
has zero public presence - no 
website, no Facebook page, no 
Twitter account, nothing. 



*2 fi.fi. 

sustainable development and populations. CEP partners with multiple groups that receive 
donations from Tides Foundation, including The Nature Conservancy, National Wildlife 
Federation, Sierra Club, League of Conservation Voters, and Union of Concerned Scientists. 367 

ii. Sustainable Markets Foundation: An Up and Coming Far-Left Fiscal 
Sponsor 

The New York-based Sustainable Markets 
Foundation (SMF) is another significant fiscal sponsor. 
Unlike Tides, Inc., it is a relatively unknown quantity. 
SMF only exists on paper and has zero public presence - 
no website, no Facebook page, no Twitter account, 
nothing. Accordingly, only an extensive review of its 
IRS Form-990s can inform the public of its activities; 
however, this review was limited to 2010 and 201 1 

because SMF's IRS Form-990 for 2012 is not public. Through meticulous research, the 
Committee identified Jay Halfon, previously discussed in this report, as the director and general 
counsel of SMF. The group was also the fiscal sponsor of the controversial 350.org. 368 
Moreover, nearly all of the members of the Billionaire's Club donate to SMF, including Schmidt, 
Global Wallace Fund, RFF, RBF, Park, Energy, and Tides. 

The Committee also found that SMF is the fiscal sponsor to more groups than listed on its 
IRS Form-990. Overall, the Committee determined that SMF fiscally sponsors at least the 
following groups: 

O/TQ 

• Gas Free Seneca 

• "Flowback Project" 370 

• Frack Free Genesee 371 

• Frack Action 372 

• Coalition to Protect New York 373 

• The Palast Investigative Fund 374 

• Artists Against Fracking 375 



About Us, Center for Environment & Population, http://www.cepnet.org/about.php (last visited July 24, 
2014). 

367 [A] Tides Found. IRS Form 990, 2011-2013. 

[B] Center for Am. Progress, IRS Form 990, 2011-2013. 

368 Discover the Network, 350.org, http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/printgroupProfile. asp?grpid=7623 (last 
visited July 28, 2014). 

369 Donate, Gas Free Seneca, http://gasfreeseneca.com/?page_id=40 (last visited July 24, 2014). 

370 Chip Northrup, Support "The Flowback" Newsletter, No FRACKING WAY (Sep. 6, 2012), 
http://www.nofrackingway.us/2012/09/06/support-the-flowback-newsletter. 

371 FrackFreeGenesee, http://frackfreegenesee.blogspot.com (last visited July 24, 2014). 

372 Donate, FRACK ACTION, 

https://org2.salsalabs.eom/o/7 139/p/salsa/donation/common/public/?donate_page_KEY=3598 (last visited July 24, 
2014). 

373 Coalition to Protect New York, http://www.coalitiontoprotectnewyork.org (last visited July 24, 2014). 

374 No Gift Donations, SUSTAINABLE MARKETS FOUNDATION, 
http://www.palastinvestigativefund.org/7nogiftdonation (last visited July 24, 2014). 



57 



• No Impact Project 

• Climate Summer 

• Center for Climate and Security 378 

Since SMF only serves as a pass through to funnel money into these organizations, it is apparent 
that they are merely a tool for the Billionaire's Club to facilitate the transfer of money to fringe 
startups. 

1. A SMF Project: "The Message" 

"The Message" is a multi-platform project on climate change. 379 The first part of the 
project is a non-fiction book expected for release in fall 2014 by Naomi Klein, to be followed by 
a documentary currently in production. 380 In 201 1 and 2012, SMF received donations for and 
distributed grants to "The Message." Specifically, in 201 1, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund gave 
SMF $50,000 for "The Message," Wallace Global Fund gave SMF $75,000 for "The Message," 
and Schmidt Family Foundation gave $40,000 to SMF "to support development of a film titled, 
The Message." 381 While those donations total 
$165,000 in 2011, that year SMF gave $112,360 
- the difference seemingly represents SMF's 
fiscal sponsor fee. The following year, the 
Schmidt Family Foundation gave SMF $100,000 
"to support The Message' film." 382 

Ms. Klein herself is a controversial figure 
In 201 1, she was very active in the Occupy Wall 
Street movement 383 - giving speeches at two 
large events 384 - where she sought to invigorate 
activists to combine their efforts with the 
environmentalists. That same year, she 




Michael Gorrnley, NY f racking foes: will become lobby if necessary, AP, Mar. 18, 2013, 
http://bigstory.ap.org/article/apnewsbreak-celeb-fracking-group-not-registered. 

376 Also lists 1 1 th Hour Project (of Schmidt Foundation), Patagonia and Wallace Global Fund, among its funders. 
See http ://noimpactproj ect.org/donate/ 

377 Donate, Better Future Project, http://climatesummer.net/donate (last visited July 24, 2014). 

378 The Center for Climate and Security, About Us, http://climateandsecurity.org/about/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

379 ^th pj our p ro j ec t 9 The Message, http://www.llthhourproject.org/grantees/the-message (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

380 Prospect Editorial, World Thinkers 2014: Naomi Klein, PROSPECT, Mar. 25, 2014, 
http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/other/naomi-klein. 

381 Schmidt Family Foundation IRS Form 990 (2011). 

382 Schmidt Family Foundation IRS Form 990 (2012). 

383 Naomi Klein, Occupy Wall Street: The Most Important Thing in the World Now, THE NATION, Oct. 6, 201 1, 
http://www.thenation.eom/article/163844/occupy-wall-street-most-important-thing-world-now#. 

384 The New School, Occupy Everywhere: On the New Politics and Possibilities of the Movement Against Corporate 
Power, The Nation, Nov. 9, 2011, http://www.thenation.com/video/164494/watch-michael-moore-naomi-klein- 
and-others-owss-possibilities. 

385 Born-Again Communism, or simply, Love Doctrine, ARCADE, http://arcade.stanford.edu/blogs/born-again- 
communism-or-simply-love-doctrine (last visited July 29, 2014). 



58 



attended a demonstration outside the White House protesting the Keystone XL pipeline, where 
she was arrested. 386 Ms. Klein's extreme behavior may be a liability for billionaire foundations 
who want to maintain close control of the way their money is used. Conveniently, the SMF 
provides a means for the Billionaire's Club to distance themselves from the activist Ms. Klein, 
while still funding her work. 

2. A SMF Project: Physicians, Scientists & Engineers 
for Healthy Energy 

SMF also funds Anthony Ingraffea's Physicians, Scientists & Engineers for Healthy 
Energy - a producer of anti-fracking reports - with offices in New York and California. 
Ingraffea, a Cornell University professor, is widely known for his highly refuted 201 1 study with 
Robert Howarth on methane emissions from shale oil and gas development. Despite the overall 
criticism of the report, he emerged as a prominent environmental ally for extreme activists. As 
Politico reported, "[h]e'll admit, though, that he uses the platform high-profile environmentalists 
provide to "amplify" his advocacy to compete with the natural gas industry's advertising and 
public relations machine." 387 For example, Time Magazine listed him and Howarth among the 
2011 "People who Mattered," along with actor and founder of Water Defense, Mark Ruffalo, for 
accelerating hydraulic fracturing to a national issue. 388 He also joined Ruffalo on a panel hosted 
by Artists Against Fracking and participated in Josh Fox's documentary Gasland Part II - two 
projects also relying on SMF for funding. 389 



TPfTT 




Mark Ruffalo (left), Anthony Ingraffea (center) and Sean Lennon (right) 



Naomi Klein arrested at D.C. pipeline protest, CBC NEWS, Sep. 2, 2011, http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/naomi- 
klein-arrested-at-d-c-pipeline-protest- 1.1 109391 (last visited July 25, 2014). 
387 Talia Buford, Anthony Ingraffea: Don't label me an activist, POLITICO, July 9, 2013, 

http://www.politico.com/story/201 3/07/anthony-ingraffea-dont-label-me-an-activist-93839.html (last visited July 25, 
2014). 

388 Bryan Walsh, People Who Mattered Mark Ruffalo, Anthony Ingraffea, Robert Howarth, TIME, Dec. 14, 201 1, 
http ://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28 804,2 1 0 1 745_2 1 02309_2 1 02323, OO.html. 

389 Talia Buford, Anthony Ingraffea: Don't label me an activist, POLITICO, July 9, 2013, 
http://www.politico.com/story/2013/07/anthony-ingraffea-dont-label-me-an-activist-93839.html. 

390 Talia Buford, Anthony Ingraffea: Don't label me an activist, PoliticoPro, July 9, 2013, 
http://www.politico.corn/story/2013/07/anthony-ingraffea-dont-label-me-an-activist-93839.html. 



59 



In 2010 and 201 1 SMF donated $140,000 to Ingraffea's group, but it is not clear whether 
any of those funds were directed by private foundations. At a minimum, the Committee 
identified a $40,000 grant from the Park Foundation to SMF specifically for Ingraffea's group in 
2012. However, due to the large sums of money SMF received without descriptions from private 
foundations such as Rockefeller Family Fund, Wallace Global Fund, and Schmidt Family 
Foundation, one can assume the money to Ingraffea can be traced back to the Billionaire's Club. 

3. A SMF Project: Toxics Targeting 

Walter Hang is another anti-fracking activist in upstate New York relying on SMF for 
funding. Hang appears to have a personal connection with SMF, as he along with three of the 
four members of SMF's board, previously worked for PIRG. Hang has described his outfit, 
Toxics Targeting, as a firm providing services to a broad array of consumers: "... we help 
engineers, we help consultants, we help municipalities, we help newspapers, and we just never 
reveal anything about who our clients are or what the scope is or anything like that." 391 SMF 
transferred $281,000 in 2010 to Hang's group. 392 

In 20 1 1 , SMF transferred $304, 1 63 to Hang. 393 "[W]e just never reveal anything 

Moreover, in 2012 the California-based Schmidt about who our clients are or what 

Family Foundation funneled $135,000 through the scope is or anything like that." 

SMF "to support Toxics Targeting and their work -Walter Hang of Toxics Targeting 

towards clean energy in New York." 394 

Similar to Ms. Klein and Ingraffea, Hang is also controversial through his efforts to 
encourage protesters to support a fracking ban in New York. He states: 

It is imperative that activists vote with their feet and attend this landmark national 
gig. We must show up by the hundreds, if not the thousands . . . We need fracking 
activists from all over New York as well as Pennsylvania, Ohio and other states to 
make Friday a massive event. 

While the private foundations may agree with Hang's overall objective, they may not 
want to associate with his means of achieving it. As such, SMF provides a convenient layer 
between rich liberal donors and Hang. 

e. The Billionaire's Club Collaborating with Shady Foreign Funders 

The Committee has also uncovered evidence that the Billionaire's Club knowingly 
collaborates with shady offshore funders to maximize support for the far-left environmental 
activists they sponsor. The Sea Change Foundation is a heavy contributor to the Energy 



Jon Campbell, Foundation's funds continue flow to fracking critics, DEMOCRAT AND CHRONICLE, July 21, 2013, 
http://www.democratandchroniclexom/story/news/local/20 1 3/07/2 1/foundations-funds-continue-flow-to-fracking- 
critics/2573681 (last accessed July 25, 2014). 

392 Sustainable Markets Found. IRS Form 990 2011). 

393 Id. 

394 Schmidt Family Found. IRS Form 990 (2012). 

395 Rick Karlin, Protesters to target Obama with anti-fracking demonstrations, Fuel Fix, Aug. 22, 2013, 7:00 AM, 
http://fuelfix.com/blog/2013/08/22/protesters-to4arget-obama-with-anti-fracto 



60 



Foundation, as discussed above. However, their donations are not advertised by the Energy 
Foundation or the other donors, most likely because the vast majority of Sea Change's funding 
comes from a Bermuda based corporation that deliberately hides the source of their funds. 

L Sea Change Foundation and Bermuda-Based Donors 

Sea Change Foundation is a private foundation based in San Francisco, California. In 
201 1 Sea Change Foundation was the sixth largest donor to environmental causes, giving 
$43,149,91 1 in grants to environmental and far-left environmental activists. 396 While it is clear 
Sea Change is a major player in funding the environmental movement, the foundation offers 
almost no information to the public. The little information available on Sea Change is limited to 
a review of its IRS Form-990 for 2010 and 201 1 as its 2012 form is not public, and a sparse 
website that only lists its logo and three-sentence mission. 




5»* Change Fourtddtuffl ts de#Hl*d to achieving nuiflninchjl vgpdl I triplet 
through Icvt'Tjgvd philjiMhiopy Ihj", MldifVA", Uh 1 r-u.:y. Drying pi o'jlcrn;, Lit ng 
Ihr wn.-ld today. Tiir Founds! icir. : inili.il fzxu-, i: rtddri7!L',ir»(j lrn* M-riciir. U rc.il', 
pcrer-d hy ylrjtual rlim.il L' change. Thr FrjunddTiGn i'r in thr process ai determining 
hnw it', granrmakiag ran have maximum impact., ana k nor afclfi ro accept 
unMJititMl proposals 



Source: www.seachange.org. 



Based on this limited information, the foundation has been summarized by Inside Philanthropy 

as: 

No more fundraising, just lots of check writing to some of the top organizations in 
the environmental world. Big checks, too. And all without dealing with the 
infamous bureaucracies of the large legacy foundations. Sea Change dispenses 
millions of dollars in grants each year to organizations that promote clean energy 
and work to reduce carbon emissions. 



Environmental Grantmakers Association, Tracking the Field Volume 4, Oct. 9, 2013, 
http://ega.org/sites/default/files/pubs/summaries/EGA_TTF_v4_ExecSummary_Final.pdf. 
397 The Gatekeepers Guide to Top Program Officers & Foundation Executives: Stephen Colwell, Sea Change 
Foundation, INSIDE PHILANTHROPY, http://insidephilanthropy.squarespace.com/insider-guide-to-program- 
offic/stephen-colwell-sea-change-foundation.html (last visited July 24, 2014). 



61 



A review of the IRS Form 990s reveals that Nathaniel ("Nat") Simons is the President of 
Sea Change, and his wife, Laura Baxter-Simons, is its Secretary. 398 Nat and Laura 
predominately fund Sea Change through their own personal wealth, mostly attributed to their ties 
to Renaissance Technologies, a wildly profitably hedge fund. 399 Nat was once a principal at 
Renaissance and currently serves on the board of Renaissance; Laura was an associate counsel at 
Renaissance. 400 Notably, Nat's father, James Simons founded Renaissance. 401 James Simons 
has been described as "one of the richest people on the planet, 402 is ranked 34 th on the Forbes' 
Richest People in America, 403 and 88 th on the Forbes' list of world billionaires with a net worth 
of $12 billion. 404 In fact, the most recent data from the Center for Responsive Politics listed 
James and Nat's mother, Marilyn Simons, as the #5 top contributor in the 2014 mid-term 
election cycle, donating 100% to Democrats - totaling $3, 289,200. 405 Nat also actively donates 
to political campaigns, including giving $15,000 to Obama's 2009 Inaugural, and has given to 
dozens of Democratic candidates for Congress. 406 

Nat also serves as CEO of Elan Management where he manages the early stages of clean 
tech companies with a focus on solar and wind energy sources. 407 Similar to Sea Change, Elan is 
based in San Francisco. Elan also created Prelude Ventures in 2009, an investment firm 
dedicated to clean energy. Tim Woodward, Managing Director of Prelude Ventures, has made 
comments revealing Elan's agenda: "we still believe that advancements in renewables from solar 
to wind will be important opportunities . . . Unfortunately, energy is still a very inexpensive 
resource in North America, and that can make it difficult for many customers to pay much 
attention " 408 (emphasis added). Only an affiliate of the Billionaire's Club invested in renewable 
technologies would express disappointment in low energy prices. 

Aside from the Simons, Stephen Colwell is the Executive Director of Sea Change. He 
previously worked as a consultant for "foundations and high-net-worth individuals, building his 
own consulting practice based in Berkeley and working with top environmental funders in the 



Jys Sea Change Found. IRS Form 990-PF, 2011. 

399 Tate Williams, The Quiet Hedge Fund Heir Who's Engaged in Massive Climate Giving, INSIDE 
PHILANTHROPY, Apr. 3, 2013, http://www.insidephilanthropy. com/wall- street- wallets/20 14/4/3/the-quiet-hedge- 
f und-heir- who s -engaged-in-mas si ve-climate-gi . html . 

400 id. 

401 id. 

402 Hedge Fund - Renaissance Technologies Profile, INSIDER MONKEY, http://www.insidermonkey.com/hedge- 
fund/renaissance+technologies/5 (last visited July 24, 2014). 

403 The Forbes 400: The Richest People in America, FORBES, http://www.forbes.com/forbes- 
400/#page:4_sort:0_direction:asc_search:_filter:All%20industries_filter:All%20states_filter:All% (last 
visited July 24, 2014). 

404 FORBES, #34 James Simons, http://www.forbes.com/profile/james-simons/ (last visited July 29, 2014). 

405 Top Individual Contributors: All Federal Contributions, OpenSecrets.ORG, 
http://www.opensecrets.org/overview/topindivs.php (last visited July 24, 2014). 

406 OpenSecrets.org, Search of Nat Simons, 
http://www.opensecrets.org/usearc^ 
%3A11 (last visited July 29, 2014). 

407 Inside Philanthropy, Sea Change Foundation: Grants for Climate Change, 

http://www.insidephilanthropy.com/fundraising-for-climate-change/sea-change-foundation-grants-for-climate- 
change.html (last visited July 29, 2014). 

408 Alexandra Scott, Longtime Energy VC Joins Family Office, CLEANTECH INNOVATION, 
http://cleantechsummit.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/CT-Article.pdf (last visited July 24, 2014). 



62 



Bay Area, including Moore, Packard, and Hewlett. Eventually he joined forces with Nat 
Simons." 409 Colwell's statements at a 2010 Global Philanthropy Forum provide a better 
understanding of his perspective on environmental funding: 

While today's discussion will be able to touch on only a small part of the threats 
and the potential solutions to climate change, I hope by the end you'll be clear on 
three points: The threats to humans caused by climate change are real and 
immediate. Climate change can be addressed now. There are cost-effective 
solutions. It is failing to address climate change that will be extraordinarily 
expensive, both in economic terms and in terms of human suffering. 
Philanthropists of all kinds, even those who don't consider themselves 
environmental philanthropists, have an incredibly important role to play in this 
fight , and that's part of what we'll be discussing today. 410 (emphasis added) 

Sea Change's IRS Form 990 also shows that in addition to funding by the Simons, the 
only other source of its contributions derives from a Bermuda-based company called Klein Ltd. 
It appears that Klein exists on paper only, as it does not have an internet presence, and was set up 
for the sole purpose of funneling anonymous donations to Sea Change. 411 In 2010, Klein 
contributed $13 million to Sea Change, amounting to 49% of all contributions to Sea Change that 
year, and in 201 1 Klein contributed $10 million to Sea Change, amounting to 33% of all 
contributions to Sea Change. 412 Bermuda offer Klein government guaranteed anonymity for the 
sources of their donations. 413 As a practical matter, an overseas company contributing tens of 
millions to organizations dedicated to abolishing 
the use of affordable fossil fuels is highly 
problematic. This is only compounded by the fact 
it is deliberately and completely lacking in 



transparency. However, it is likely this lack of 
transparency shields Klein Ltd. from any 
responsibility to the American businesses and 
families it hurts. 



It appears that Klein exists on paper 
only as it does not have an internet 
presence, and was set up for the sole 
purpose of funneling anonymous 
donations to Sea Change 



Importantly, Sea Change's funding reveals massive amounts of grants to almost all the 
major environmental and far-left activists previously discussed in this report. A summary of 
these grants is compiled below. 



409 Inside Philanthropy, Stephen Cowell, Sea Change Foundation, 

http://insidephilanthropy.squarespacexom/insider-guide-to-program-offic/stephen-colwell-sea-change- 
foundation.html (last visited July 29, 2014). 

410 Global Philanthropy Forum, Meeting the Challenge-Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation, 
http://philanthropyforum.org/sessions/meeting-the-challenge-climate-change-mitigation-and- 
adaptation/#sthash.REfD2xAh.dpuf (last visited July 29, 2014). 

411 Lachlan Markay, Liberal Foundation Distributed Money from Bermuda to Liberal Nonprofits, WASHINGTON 
Free Beacon, Aug. 1, 2013, 3:30 PM, http://freebeacon.com/national-security/liberal-foundation-distributed- 
money-from-bermuda-to-liberal-nonprofits. 

412 1± 
413 id. 



63 



Sea Change Funding for Major Environmental and Far-Left Activists 



Organization 


Total Grants 2010-2011 


League of Conservation Voters Education Fund 


$10,700,000 


Sierra Club Foundation 


$6,950,000 


Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. 


$4,187,500 


Environmental Defense Fund, Inc. 


$1,162,500 


American Lung Association 


$400,000 


National Wildlife Federation 


$3,400,000 


World Wildlife Fund, Inc. 


$4,500,000 


Center for American Progress 


$2,500,000 


TOTAL: 


$33,800,000 



Source: 2010 and 2011 990-PF Forms 



Sea Change also donates to other foundations that serve as pass-through entities such as 
the Energy Foundation, Tides, and Virginia Organizing that heavily donate to the same groups. 
Energy Foundation is the single largest recipient of funding from Sea Change receiving a total 
$27,924,440 in 2010 and 201 1. 414 

All of Sea Change's grants are focused on environmental issues. In fact, in 2010, Sea 
Change contributed $10,933,332 in grants to environmental organizations to "reduce reliance on 
high carbon energy." 415 The next year, 201 1, Sea Change allocated nearly $10 million in grants 
for the same purpose. Thus, in 2010-201 1, this one private foundation, which receives over 30% 
of its funding from a foreign overseas company, actively seeking to hide the source of its 
funding, contributed over $20 million dollars to fight domestic fossil energy production. The 
following graphic illustrates how funding from Klein Ltd. is funneled through Sea Change to 
prominent environmental organizations. 



414 Sea Change Found., IRS Form 990, 2010-2011. 

415 Id. 



64 



Renewables Investor & Foreign Funder Backing 
Prominent Far-Left Organizations 



-o- 

firms tocusing 
- Donated nearly $34 million to 
Sea Change In 2010-2011 



Nat & Laura Simons 

- Hedgefund billionaires 

- Owners of clean tech investment 
firms focusing on renewables 



Klein Ltd. 

Incorporated in Bermuda 

■ No disclosure of donors 

■ No website or online presence 

■ Donated $23 million to 
Sea Change in 2010-2011 



/ 



/ 



Sea Change Foundation 

- Based in California 

- Donates millions to major environmental 
activist and pass-through foundations 

- Award grants focusing on reducing 
fossil fuels 



League of 
Conservation Voters) 
$10,700,000 



Natural Resources 
Defense Council 
$4,187,500 







National Wildlife 


\ 


Foundation 




$3,400,000 


World Wildlife Fund 




$4,500,000 





Center for American 
Progress 
$2,500,000 



Environmental 
Defense Fund 
$1,162,500 



Sierra Club 
$6,950,000 



Energy 7 Foundation 
$27,850,000 



The role Sea Change plays as a member of the Billionaire's Club is deeply troubling, 
especially in light of recent revelations that environmental activists, many of whom are clearly 
benefiting from this extreme "dark money," do not have any moral qualms over where their 
money comes from - so long as it supports the far-left cause. 416 This sentiment was captured by 
a recently released investigative video that revealed Hollywood producers of far-left 
environmental films were eager to accept Middle Eastern money to produce an anti-fracking 
video. Notably, in speaking with a man believed to represent rich Middle Eastern oil interests 
opposed to American energy independence through tracking, one producer said: 



Project Veritas, Full Un edited raw video, exclusive release by Project Veritas, available at YouTube.com, 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6HZ5VLmyes&list=UUL9PlYkRD3Q-RZca6CCnPKw (last visited July 29, 
2014). 



65 



This is not the first major project that we've had funded through a funding source 
which you know, for various reasons - we didn't disclose. It would have been 
very unwise for everybody to understand the dynamics of that funding. So we 
know how tricky it is. ... It's money, so in that sense we have no moral issue. 417 



66 



CONCLUSION 



EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy recently told Congress that the Agency's proposed 
Existing Source Performance Standards for coal fired power plants, which is widely believed to 
be the death knell for coal as an industry, was, in fact, an opportunity for economic growth: "The 
great thing about this proposal is that it really is an investment opportunity. This is not about 
pollution control. It's about increased efficiency at our plants, no matter where you want to 
invest. It's about investment in renewables and clean energy." 418 In fact, multiple sources, 
including the New York Times, have attributed the authorship of the proposal in large part to the 
"NRDC mafia," including David Doniger, Daniel Lashof, and David Hawkins. 419 

As this report reveals, NRDC obtains a significant amount of donations from the Energy 
Foundation, which is heavily funded by Sea Change Foundation, whose major donors are heavily 
invested in renewable technologies. This report offers a new perspective on the "opportunities" 
McCarthy was referring to which are the economic opportunities of millionaires and billionaires 
who are part of the far-left environmental machine heavily invested in helping EPA advance 
such regulations. It is surely not an opportunity for Americans living in Appalachia or the 
Powder River Basin who depend on coal for their energy supply and livelihood, nor is it an 
economic opportunity for Americans already struggling to pay their energy bills. 

Therein lies the importance of this report and the reason the Committee is dedicated to 
unraveling the puzzle presented by the questionable funding tactics of the far-left environmental 
community. Through a series of case studies, this report exposes the most politically active 
donors, explains how they use loopholes in the tax law to funnel tax deductible contributions to 
far-left environmental activist, and details how those activists turn the "investments" into 
political results. Moreover, the report uncovers the shocking lengths wealthy liberal donors are 
willing to take to hide their involvement in the scheme. Finally, the report shines a light on the 
alarming reality that unknown foreign investors are financing the environmental movement, 
using the shady Sea Change Foundation as cover. 

The report uncovers how the EPA is very much an active partner in the far-left 
environmental movement, and even sponsors their efforts through grants to environmental 
activist. Former Assistant Administrator Michelle DePass and current Region 2 Administrator 
Judith Enck are far from the exception to the rule. 

Finally, this report is necessarily limited in its scope and only scratches the surface in its 
effort to document the money trail. Furthermore, as the Committee's jurisdiction is limited to 
oversight of the EPA and energy and environmental policy, so too this report is constrained to 
reviewing activities intended to influence such policy. There is an abundance of evidence to 
suggest that this system is replicated across the progressive coalition. More investigation and 
oversight is needed. 



EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy, testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, 
July 23, 2014. 

419 Coral Davenport, Taking Oil Industry Cue, Environmentalists Drew Emissions Blueprint, THE NEW YORK 
TIMES, July 6, 2014, http://www.nytimesxoni/2014/07/07/us/how-environmentalists-drew-blueprint-for-obama- 
emissions-rule.html?_r=0. 



67 



APPENDIX A: TOP FOUNDATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL GIVING 



Private Foundations 

David and Lucile Packard Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 

Registered: Los Altos, CA 

EIN: 94-2278431 

Total Assets: $6,299,952,716 420 

EGA Member*: Yes 

Board Members: Edward W. (Ned) Barnholt, Ipek S. Burnett, Jason K. Burnett, Nancy Packard 
Burnett, James Clark, Linda Griego, Carol S. Larson, Jane Lubchenco, Linda 

AT 

A. Mason, David Orr, Susan Packard Orr, Julie E. Packard, Ward W. Woods A 

Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 

Registered: Palo Alto, CA 

EIN: 94-3397785 

Total Assets: $5,697,258,026 422 

EGA Member*: Yes 

Board Members: Gordon Moore - Chairman, Bruce Alberts, Rosina Bierbaum, James C. 

Gaither, Paul Gray, John Hennessy, Kathleen Justice-Moore, Kenneth G. 
Moore, Kristen L. Moore, Steven E. Moore, Kenneth F. Siebel 

Marisla Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 

Registered: Laguna Beach, CA 

EIN: 33-0200133 

Total Assets: $51,482,397 423 

EGA Member*: Yes 

Board Members: Unknown 

Park Foundation, Inc. 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 

Registered: Ithaca, NY 

EIN: 16-6071043 

Total Assets: $366,405,008 424 

EGA Member*: No 

Board Members: Adelaide Gomer - President, Alicia P. Wittink - Vice President, William L. 

Bondurant - Treasurer, Richard G. Robb, Jerome B. Libin, Jay R. Half on 



420 David and Lucile Packard Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

421 About the Foundation, Our People: Board of Trustees, DAVID AND LUCILE PACKARD FOUNDATION, 
http://www.packard.org/about-the-foundation/our-people/board-of-trustees (last visited July 28, 2014). 

422 Gordon and Betty Moore Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

423 Marisla Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

424 Park Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

* Note: The Environmental Grantmakers Association does not disclose their membership list, so information 
included in this appendix is based on the best available information. 



Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Inc. 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 
Registered: New York, NY 
EIN: 13-1760106 
Total Assets: $800,956,943 425 
EGA Member*: Yes 

Board Members: Richard G. Rockefeller - Chairman, Joseph A. Pierson - Vice Chairman, 
Stephen C. Rockefeller, David Rockefeller, Anne Bartley, Vali Nasr, R. 
Nicholas Burns, Valerie Wayne, Miranda M. Kaiser, Wendy O'Neill, Timothy 
O'Neill, Wendy Gordon, Justin Rockefeller, Arlene Shuler, Marsha Simms, 
Kavita Ramdas, Stephen B. Heintz 

Schmidt Family Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 

Registered: Palo Alto, CA 

EIN: 20-4170342 

Total Assets: $312,189,881 426 

EGA Member*: Yes 

Board Members: Karen Krumholtz - Executive Director, Richard L. Schmidt, Barbara M. 
Schmidt, Raymond J. Webb, JP Morgan Chase Bank 

Sea Change Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 
Registered: San Francisco, CA 
EIN: 20-4952986 
Total Assets: $124,350,435 427 
EGA Member*: No 

Board Members: Nathaniel Simons - President, Laura Baxter-Simons, Secretary 428 

TomKat Charitable Trust 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 
Registered: San Francisco, CA 
EIN: 38-6866542 
Total Assets: $177,849,515 429 
EGA Member*: No 

Board Members: Brooks Shumway - Executive Director, Kathryn Hall, Erin Eisenberg 430 

TomKat Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 
Registered: San Francisco, CA 



Rockefeller Bros. Fund, IRS Form 990, 2012. 
Schmidt Family Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 
SeaChange Found., IRS Form 990, 2011. 
SeaChange Found., IRS Form 990, 2011. 
TomKat Charitable Trust, IRS Form 990, 2012. 
TomKat Charitable Trust, IRS Form 990, 2012. 



* Note: The Environmental Grantmakers Association does not disclose their membership list, so information 
included in this appendix is based on the best available information. 



EIN: 20-5730928 
Total Assets: $28,458 431 
EGA Member*: No 

Board Members: Tom Steyer - President, Kathryn Taylor, Brooks Shumway 432 

Wallace Global Fund 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 
Registered: Washington, DC 
EIN: 80-0424607 
Total Assets: $155,471,213 433 
EGA Member*: Yes 

Board Members: Johanna Dominguez - Associate Director, Astra Wallace - Associate Director, 
Annie Leonard, Scott Wallace, Christy Wallace, Scott Fitzmorris 434 



Walton Family Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 

Registered: Bentonville, AR 

EIN: 13-3441466 

Total Assets: $1,999,066,369 435 

EGA Member*: No 

Board Members: Unknown 



William & Flora Hewlett Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Private Foundation 
Registered: Menlo Park, CA 
EIN: 94-1655673 
Total Assets: $7,735,371, 139 436 
EGA Member*: Yes 

Board Members: Harvey V. Feinberg - Chairman, Larry D. Kramer - President, Eric Gimon, 

Walter B. Hewlett, Patricia A. House, Koh Boon Hwee, Mary H. Jaffe, Richard 
C. Levin, Stephen C. Neal, Rakesh Rajani, Jean Gleason Stromberg 437 



Public Charities 



Climate Works Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Public Charity 
Registered: San Francisco, CA 
EIN: 26-2303250 
Total Assets: $219,543,071 438 



431 TomKat Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

432 TomKat Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

433 Wallace Global Fund, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

434 About, Board, WALLACE GLOBAL FUND, http://www.wgf.org/about (last visited July 28, 2014). 

435 Walton Family Foundation, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

436 William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Form 990, 2012. 

437 About Us: Board Members and Officers, WILLIAM AND FLORA HEWLETT FOUNDATION, 
http://www.hewlett.org/about-us/board-members-and-offlcers (last visited July 28, 2014). 



* Note: The Environmental Grantmakers Association does not disclose their membership list, so information 
included in this appendix is based on the best available information. 



EGA Member*: No 

Function: Pass-through Foundation 

Board Members: Susan Tierney - Chair, Jamshyd N. Godrej, Larry Kramer, Carol S. Larson, 
Pamela Matson, Kristian Parker, Charlotte Pera, William K. Reilly 439 

Energy Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Public Charity 

Registered: San Francisco, CA 

EIN: 94-3126848 

Total Assets: $32,212,733 440 

EGA Member*: Yes 

Function: Pass-through foundation 

Board Members: Eric Heitz - President, Phil Sharp - Board Chair, Mark Burget, Stephen 

Harper, Khee Poh Lam, Kris Mayes, Bill Ritter, Jr., William Ruckelshuas, Noa 
Staryk, Sue Tierney, Michael Wang, Hongjun Zhang 441 

Sustainable Markets Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Public Charity 
Registered: New York, NY 
EIN: 13-4188834 
Total Assets: $2,056,007 442 
EGA Member*: No 

Function: Pass-through Foundation, Fiscal Sponsor 

Board Members: Elizabeth Hitchcock - President, Steve Kleinberg - Vice President, Geoff 
Boehm, Secretary/Treasurer, Jay Halfon - Director/General Counsel 443 

Tides, Inc. 

Status: 501(c)(3) Public Charity 
Registered: San Francisco, CA 
EIN: 57-1138099 
Total Assets: $13,172,012 444 
EGA Member*: No 

Board Members: Vincent McGee - Chair, Tuti B. Scott - Vice Chair, Noa Emmett Aluli, Kafi D. 

Blumenfield, Joanie Bronfman, Stephanie J. Clohesy, Michael Fernandez, 
Jacob Hunter Fisher, Lisa Hall, Peter Mellen, Suzanne Nossel, John A. Powell, 
Chuck C. Savitt 445 



Tides Center 

Status: 501(c)(3) Public Charity 



ClimateWorks Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

About - Our Board, Climate Works, http://www.climateworks.org/about/board (last visited July 28, 2014). 
Energy Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

About Us: Board, ENERGY FOUND., http://www.ef.org/board (last visited July 28, 2014). 
Sustainable Markets Found., IRS Form 990, 2011. 
Sustainable Markets Found., IRS Form 990, 2011. 
Sustainable Markets Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

About: Board, Tides Board of Directors, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/about/board (last visited July 28, 2014). 



* Note: The Environmental Grantmakers Association does not disclose their membership list, so information 
included in this appendix is based on the best available information. 



Registered: San Francisco, CA 
EIN: 94-3213100 
Total Assets: $72,150,699 446 
EGA Member*: No 
Function: Fiscal Sponsor 

Board Members: Stephanie Clohesy - Chair, Tuti Scott, John Powell, Suzanne Nossel, Michael 
Fernandez 447 



Tides Foundation 

Status: 501(c)(3) Public Charity 
Registered: San Francisco, CA 
EIN: 51-0198509 
Total Assets: $141,039,613 448 
EGA Member*: Yes 

Board Members: Joanie Bronfman - Chair, Lisa Hall, Vincent McGee, Chuck Savitt, Jacob 
Fisher, Kafi Blumenfield 449 



Virginia Organizing 

Status: 501(c)(3) Public Charity 
Registered: Charlottesville, VA 
EIN: 54-1674992 
Total Assets: $2,888,732 450 
EGA Member*: No 
Function: Fiscal Sponsor 

Board Members: Sandra Cook - Chairperson, D. Ladelle McWhorter, Vice-Chairperson, 

Thomasine Wilson - Secretary, Denise Smith - At-Large Executive Committee 
Member, Janice "Jay" Johnson - Treasurer, Debra Grant, Gabrielle Brown, 
Janie Williams, Johnny Mayo, Ray Scher 451 



446 Tides Center, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

447 About: Board, The Tides Center Board of Directors, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/about/board (last visited July 
28,2014). 

448 Tides Found., IRS Form 990, 2012. 

449 About: Board, The Tides Foundation Board of Directors, TIDES, http://www.tides.org/about/board (last visited 
July 28, 2014). 

450 Virginia Organizing, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

451 About: Board Members, VIRGINIA ORGANIZING, http://www.virginia-organizing.org/board (last visited July 28, 
2014). 



* Note: The Environmental Grantmakers Association does not disclose their membership list, so information 
included in this appendix is based on the best available information. 



APPENDIX B: ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS 



American Lung Association (ALA) 

Type: 501(c)(3) 

Total Assets: $31,049,040 452 

Board Members: Kathryn A. Forbes, Chair; John F. Emanuel, Vice Chair; Penny J. Siewart, 

Secretary/Treasurer; Ross P. Lanzafame, Past Chair; Linn Billingsley, Michael 
F. Busk, Cheryl A. Calhoun, Chris Carney, Michael V. Carstens, Mario Castro, 
Arthur A. Cerullo, Pauline Grant; Sumita Khatri; Angela V. Mastrofrancesco; 
Robert Merchant; Stephen J. Nolan; Stephen R. O'Kane; Harry Perlstadt; 
Austin K. Pugh; Jane Z. Reardon; Jeffrey T. Stein; Karin A. Tollefson; Leticia 
W. Towns 

Executive Leadership: Harold Wimmer, President and CEO 
Membership Dues: None 

Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) 

Type: 501(c)(3) 453 

Total Assets: $12,282,335 454 

Board Members: Marcey Olajos, Board Chair; Stephanie Zill, Treasurer; Matt Frankell Peter 
Galvin; Todd Steiner; Todd Schulke (on the Founders Advisory Board); Dr. 
Robin Silver (on the Founders Advisory Board) 455 

Executive Leadership: Kieran Suckling, Executive Director and Cofounder; Michael Finkelstein, 

Director of Operations and Secretary; Marcy Brell, Chief Financial 
Officer; Judy Anderson, Bookkeeper; John Buse, Legal Director, Interim 
General Counsel; Peter Galvin, Director of Programs and Cofounder; Gus 
Glaser, Executive Assistant; Trish Mallon, Human Resources Director; 
Rebecca O'Sullivan, Regional Office Manager; Linda Wells, Director of 
Finance 456 

Membership Dues: An amount greater than 0 (suggested $35) must be donated when you sign 
up. It is tax-deductible. 

Party Affiliation: "Whereas [CBD], we're truly nonpartisan. It's not because we have some naive 
concept of nonpartisanship. It's that the Democratic Party is not adequately 
looking after the needs of nature, and therefore it's counterproductive to 
completely ally with them." 457 



452 American Lung Association, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

453 Center for Biological Diversity, State Fundraising Disclosures, 

http://www.biologicaldiversity.Org/support/membership/state_fundraising_disclosures.M (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

454 Center for Biological Diversity, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

455 Center for Biological Diversity, About the Center, http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/about/board/index.html 
(last visited July 28, 2014). 

456 Center for Biological Diversity, Contact, http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/about/contact/index.html (last 
visited July 28, 2014). 

457 Center for Biological Diversity, Earth Island Journal, Autumn 201 1, 

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/news/center/articles/201 l/earth-island-journal-autumn-201 l.html (last visited 
July 28, 2014). 



Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) 

Type: 501(c)(3) 458 

Total Assets: $208,75 1,208 459 

Board of Trustees: Carl Ferenbach, Chair; Arthur Kern, Vice Chair; Art Cooley, Secretary; G. 

Leonard Baker, Jr.; Abby Leigh; Michael Bills; Sarah Liao Sau-tung, Ph.D.; 
Sally G. Bingham, M.Div.; Katherine Lorenz; Shelby W. Bonnie; William K. 
Bowes, Jr.; Frank Loy; Dr. Jane Lubchenco; Keith Campbell; Leslie Dach; 
Susan Mandel; Kathryn Murdoch; Signe Ostby; Ann Doerr; Stephen W. 
Pacala, Ph.D.; Susan Ford Dorsey; Stephen W. Pacala, Ph.D.; Stanley 
Druckenmiller; Robert M. Perkowitz; Kirsten J. Feldman; Lynn R. Goldman, 
M.D., M.P.H.; Julian H. Robertson, Jr.; Peggy M. Shepard; Charles J. 
Hamilton, Jr.; Griffith R. Harsh, IV, M.D., M.B.A; Douglas W. Shorenstein; 
Edward Stern; Mark W. Heising; Sam Rawlings Walton; Kristine Johnson; 
Charles F. Wurster, Ph.D.; The Honorable Thomas H. Kean; Richard J. 
Lazarus; Roland C. Clement (Honorary); Gene E. Likens, Ph.D. (Honorary); 
George G. Montgomery, Jr. (Honorary); N. J. Nicholas, Jr. (Honorary); George 
M. Woodwell, Ph.D. (Honorary) 460 
Executive Leadership: Fred Krupp, President; Lisa Henshaw, COO; Paula Hayes, Senior VP 

Global Strategic Initiatives; Eric Pooley, Senior VP Strategy and 
Communications; Linda Nelson, Senior VP Development; Cynthia 
Hallenbeck, Chief Financial Officer, Brian Attas, CIO; Felipa Bernard, 
VP Human Resources; Cynthia Hampton, VP Marketing & 
Communications; Carol Kinzler, Chief of Staff 461 
Membership Dues: A donation is required when you sign up to be a member (suggested amount 

$25). It is tax-deductible. 
Party Affiliation: Nonpartisan. "Working for smart, nonpartisan policy. We have always worked 
to be a trusted force for environmental progress, on both sides of the aisle" 462 

Environmental Defense Action Fund 

Type: 501(c)(4) 463 

Total Assets: $208,75 1,208 464 

Board of Directors: Frank Loy, Co-chair; William R. Goodell, Co-chair; Brian Conboy; Thomas 
F. Darden, II; Richard H. Davis; Kirsten J. Feldman; Carl Ferenbach; 
Charles J. Hamilton, Jr.; Coddy Johnson; Derek Kan; The Honorable 
Thomas H. Kean; John C. Kerr; Abby Leigh; Susan Mandel; Adele 



Environmental Defense Fund, Financial Statements, https://www.edf.org/sites/default/files/EDF-Final-Financial- 
Statements-2012.pdf (last visited July 28, 2014). 

459 Environmental Defense Fund, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

460 Environmental Defense Fund, Board of Trustees, http://www.edf.org/people/board-of-trustees (last visited July 
28, 2014). 

461 Environmental Defense Fund, Executive Team, http://www.edf.org/people/executive-team (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

462 Environmental Defense Fund, Working for smart nonpartisan policy, http://www.edf.org/approach/policy (last 
visited July 28, 2014). 

463 Envt'l Defense Fund, Consolidated and Consolidating Financial Statements Sept. 30, 2012 and 2011, 
https://www.edf.org/sites/default/files/EDF-Final-Financial-Statements-2012.pdf (last visited July 28, 2014). 

464 Environmental Defense Action Fund, IRS Form 990 (2012). 



Simmons; Nina Szlosberg-Landis; Sam Rawlings Walton; Jeffrey P. 
Williams; Paul Junger Witt; Joanne Witty 465 
Executive Leadership: Elizabeth B. Thompson, President; Fred Krupp, Executive Director; Joe 

Bonfiglio, Deputy Director; Cynthia Hallenbeck, Treasurer 466 



Greenpeace Fund 

Type: 501(c)(3) 467 

Total Assets: $15,313,140 468 

Board of Directors: Tom Newark, Chair; Jeffrey Hollender, Director; Elizabeth Gilchrist, 
Director; Alnoor Ladha, Director; Adelaide Gomer, Director; Ellen 
McPeake, Director; John Passacantando, Director 469 

Executive Leadership: Kumi Naidoo, Greenpeace International Executive Director; Annie 

Leonard, Greenpeace USA Executive Director; Britt Cocanour, Director 
of Public Outreach; Nicky Davies, Campaigns Director 470 

Membership Dues: No set dues; membership by monthly or single donations; no revenue from 

membership dues listed on 990 

Party Affiliation: "Greenpeace is a force for hope and you can help us shine that light much 
brighter. We are independent and non-partisan." 471 

Greenpeace Inc. 

Type: 501(c)(4) 472 

Total Assets: $5,121,059 473 

Board of Directors: Karen Topakian, Chair; Guillermo Quinteros, Director; Jee Kim, Director; 

Bryony Schwan, Director; Larry Kopald, Director; Tracy Sturdivant, 
Director; Betsy Taylor, Director 474 
Executive Leadership: Kumi Naidoo, Greenpeace International Executive Director; Annie 

Leonard, Greenpeace USA Executive Director; Britt Cocanour, Director 
of Public Outreach; Nicky Davies, Campaigns Director 475 
Membership Dues: No set dues; membership by monthly or single donations; no revenue from 

membership dues listed on 990 476 
Party Affiliation: "Greenpeace, Inc. is the leading independent campaigning organization..." 477 



465 



466 id. 



Envt's Defense Fund, About Us - Our Leadership, http://www.edfaction.org/about-us (last visited July 28, 2014). 



468 



Greenpeace Fund, IRS Form 990, 2013. 
Greenpeace Fund, IRS Form 990, 2012. 



469 Greenpeace, Governance, http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/about/governance/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

470 
471 



472 



Greenpeace, Our Staff, http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/about/our-staff/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 
Greenpeace, Welcome to Greenpeace Fund, http://www.greenpeacefund.org/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 



Greenpeace, Contribute to Greenpeace, 
https://secure3. convio.net/gpeace/site/SPageServer ?pagename=current_donate_form_scripts&id=reus_donateNewD 
esignTest&s_src=footer (last visited July 28, 2014). 

473 Greepeace, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

474 Greenpeace, About Us - Governance, http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/about/governance (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

475 Greenpeace, About Us - Our Leadership, http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/about/our-staff/ 

~"i<i. 
471 id. 



League of Conservation Voters Education Fund 

Type: 501 (c)(3) 478 

Total Assets: $7,545,946 479 

Board of Directors: Carol Browner, Chair; Laura Turner Seydel, Vice Chair; Sarah Rose, 

Secretary; Tom Kiernan, Treasurer; Ruth Hennig; Ian Inaba; Bill Roberts; 
Tom Steinbach; Anne Summers; Lisa Wozniak 480 
Executive Leadership: Gene Karpinski, President; Patrick Collins, Senior Vice President, 
Finance & Administration; Stacey Folsom, Senior Vice President, 
Development; Tiernan Sittenfeld, Senior Vice President, Government 
Affairs; Rich Thomas, General Counsel & Senior Vice President; David 
Willett, Vice President, Communications; Vinnie Wishrad, Senior Vice 
President, Membership and Online Engagement; Ed Zuckerman, Senior 
Vice President, State Capacity Building 481 
Party Affiliation: "An independent, non-partisan 501(c)(3) organization, LCV Education Fund 
was founded in 1985 to provide research and training on environmental 



League of Conservation Voters 

Type: 501(c)(4) 483 

Total Assets: $8,074,139 484 

Board of Directors: Carol Browner, Chair; Sherwood Boehlert, Vice Chair; Marcia Bystryn, 
Secretary; Tom Kiernan, Treasurer; Theodore Roosevelt IV (Honorary 
Chair); John H. Adams; Paul Austin; Brent Blackwelder (Honorary); 
Brendon Cechovic; Carrie Clark; Manny Diaz; Gseorge T. Frampton, Jr.; 
Wade Greene (Honorary); Rampa R. Hormel; John Hunting (Honorary); 
Winsome Mcintosh (Honorary); Mark Magana; Peter Mandelstam; Pete 
Maysmith; William H. Meadows III; Reuben Munger; Bill Roberts; Larry 
Rockefeller; Laura Turner Seydel; Trip Van Noppen; Kathleen Welch 485 
Executive Leadership: Gene Karpinski, President; Patrick Collins, Senior Vice President, 

Finance & Administration; Stacey Folsom, Senior Vice President, 
Development; Tiernan Sittenfeld, Senior Vice President, Government 
Affairs; Rich Thomas, General Counsel & Senior Vice President; David 
Willett, Vice President, Communications; Vinnie Wishrad, Senior Vice 



League of Conservation Voters Education Fund, About, http://www.lcvef.org/about/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

479 League of Conservation Voters Education Fund, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

480 League of Conservation Voters Education Fund, Board of Directors, http://www.lcvef.org/about/board-of- 
directors/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

481 League of Conservation Voters Education Fund, Staff, http://www.lcvef.org/about/staff/ (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

482 Id. 

483 League of Conservation Voters, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

484 League of Conservation Voters, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

485 League of Conservation Voters, About - Board of Directors, http://www.lcv.org/about/board (last visited July 28, 
2014). 



President, Membership and Online Engagement; Ed Zuckerman, Senior 
Vice President, State Capacity Building 486 
Membership Dues: A donation is required when you sign up (suggest amount $35). It is not tax- 
deductible. 487 

Party Affiliation: There is no mention of any partisan affiliation or nonpartisan affiliation. 



Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) 

Type: 501(c)(3) 489 

Total Assets: $268,165,564 490 

Board of Trustees: Daniel R. Tishman, Chair; Frederick A.O. Schwarz, Jr., Chair Emeritus; 

Patricia Bauman, Vice Chair; Alan F. Horn, Vice Chair; Wendy K. Neu, 
Vice Chair; Mary Moran, Treasurer; John H. Adams; Adam Albright; 
Richard E. Ayres; Claire Bernard; Anna Scott Carter; Sarah E. Cogan; 
Laurie David; Leonardo DiCaprio; John E. Echohawk; Michel Gelobter, 
Ph.D.; Kate Greswold; Arjun Gupta; Philip B. Korsant; Nicole E. Lederer; 
Michael Lynton; Shelly B. Malkin; Josephine A. Merck; Kelly Chapman 
Meyer; Peter A. Morton; Frederica P. Perera, Ph.D.; Robert Redford; 
Laurance Rockefeller; Jonathan F. P. Rose; Tom Roush, M.D.; William H. 
Schlesinger; Wendy Schmidt; Max Stone; James Taylor; Gerald Torres; 
David C. Vladeck; David F. Welch, Ph.D.; Eric Wepsic; George M. 
Woodwell, Ph.D. 491 

Executive Leadership: Francis Beinecke, President; Peter Lehner, Exec Director; Lisa 

Benenson, Chief Communications Officer; Mitchell Bernar, Director of 
Litigation; Sarah Gillman, CFO; Ashok Gupta, Director of Programs; 
Francesca Koe, Director of Campaigns; Henry L. Henderson, Director, 
Chicago, Midwest Program; Annie Notthoff, Director, California 
Advocacy, San Francisco and Sacramento, Government Affairs 
Program 492 

Membership Dues: Requires a donation amount (suggested $25) when you sign up. It is tax- 
deductible. However, when you join the Action Fund there is no fee. 493 
Party Affiliation: There is no mention of any partisan affiliation or nonpartisan affiliation. 494 



League of Conservation Voters, About - Staff, http://www.lcv.org/about/staff (last visited July 28, 2014). 

487 League of Conservation Voters, Donate to LCV - Join or Renew Today!, 
https://secure3.convio.net^ 

=9620&9620.donation=forml (last visited July 28, 2014). 

488 Id. 

489 Natural Resources Defense Council, 2013 Financial Statement, 
http://www.nrdc.org/about/NRDC_auditedfinancialstatements_FY20 1 3 .pdf 

490 Natural Resources Defense Council, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

491 Natural Resources Defense Council, Board of Directors, http://www.nrdc.org/about/board.asp (last visited July 
28,2014). 

492 Natural Resources Defense Council, NRDC Leadership Experts, http://www.nrdc.org/about/staff/nrdc-leadership- 
experts (last visited July 28, 2014). 

493 Natural Resources Defense Council, donations page, https://www.nrdc.org/joingive/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

494 Natural Resources Defense Council, About, http://www.nrdc.org/about/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 



National Wildlife Federation (NWF) 

Type: 501(c)(3) 495 

Total Assets: $66,456,891 496 

Board of Directors: Deborah Spalding, Chair; Bruce Wallace, Chair Elect; Paul Beaudette, 
Eastern Vice Chair; Clark Bullard, Central Vice Chair; Kent Salazar, 
Western Vice Chair; Stephen K. Allinger, Past Chair; Brian B ashore, 
Director; Tahlia Bear, Director; Jenny Brock, Director; Alison Byers, 
Director; Ron Clausen, Director; Shelley Cohen, Director; Sharon Darnov, 
Director; Dianne Dillon-Ridgley, Director; Tom Dougherty, Director; John 
Grant, Jr., Director; David L. Hargett, Director; Bill Houston, Director; 
David Langhorst, Director; Jerry Little, Director; Ramon Lopez, Director; 
Brian Preston, Director; Julia Reed Zaic, Director; Norm Ritchie, Director; 
Truman Semans, Director; Leslie Shad, Director; Mary Van Kerrebrook, 
Director; Lise Van Susteren, Director; Nicole Wood, Director 497 

Executive Leadership: Collin O'Mara, President & Executive Officer; Jaime Matyas, Executive 

VP and COO; Deborah Spalding, Chair 498 

Membership Dues: Must make a donation, suggest amount is $30. It is tax-deductible. 499 

Party Affiliation: There is no mention of any partisan affiliation or nonpartisan affiliation. 500 

National Wildlife Federation (NWF) Action Fund 

Type: 501(c)(4) 501 
Total Assets: $604,386 502 

Executive Leadership/Board Members: Andy Buchsbaum served as interim Executive Director 

in 20 1 3 503 . However, there is no information about who 
is the 2014 Executive Director. 



Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Action Fund 

Type: 501 (c)(4) 504 

Total Assets: $2,955,590 505 

Mission: "The NRDC Action Fund's mission is to achieve the passage of legislation that jump- 



National Wildlife Federation, Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.nwf.org/Who-We- Are/Contact- 
Us/Frequently- Asked-Questions.aspx(last visited July 28, 2014). 

496 National Wildlife Federation, IRS Form 900 (2012). 

497 National Wildlife Federation, Board of Directors, http://www.nwf.org/Who-We-Are/Our-Staff/Board-of- 
Directors.aspx (last visited July 28, 2014). 

498 National Wildlife Federation, Our Staff, http://www.nwf.org/Who-We-Are/Our-Staff.aspx (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

499 National Wildlife Federation, donations page, 

https://online.nwf.org/site/Donation27df _id=32500&32500.donation=forml&s_subsrc=Web_Footer_Donate_NWF 
_JoinNWF (last visited July 28, 2014). 

500 Id. 

501 National Wildlife Federation, Our Mission, 

https://online.nwf.org/site/SPageNavigator/ActionCenter/about/our_mission (last visited July 28, 2014). 

502 National Wildlife Federation Action Fund IRS Form 990 (201 1). 

503 Miles Grant, NWF Action Fund Welcomes Andy Buchsbaum as Interim Executive Director, National Wildlife 
Federation Action Fund, http://online.nwf.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id= 19289 (last visited July 28, 2014). 

504 NRDC Action Fund, About the NRDC Action Fund, http://www.nrdcactionfund.org/about (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

505 NRDC Action Fund IRS Form 990 (201 1). 



starts the clean energy economy, reduces pollution, and sustains vibrant communities 
for all Americans. Now is the time for leadership and action from our elected officials 
— our current goal is a comprehensive clean energy policy that will repower our 
economy and fuel our future." 506 
Board of Directors: Bob Epstein, Chair; Wendy Abrams; John Adams; Christopher Arndt; 

Richard Ayres; Anne Bartley; Patricia Bauman; Frances Beinecke; Lucy 
Blake; Dayna Bochco; Sherwood Boehlert; Hamilton (Hal) Candee; Ari 
Emanuel; Michael Finnegan; William (Bill) Haney; Barbarina Heyerdahl; 
Cindy Harrell Horn; Jo Ann Kaplan; Hamilton F. Kean; Vernice Miller- 
Travis; Mary Moran; Edward James Olmos; Patricia Sullivan; Daniel R. 
Tishman; Eric Wepsic; Ira Ziering 
Executive Leadership: Frances Beinecke, Action Fund President; Peter Lehner, Action Fund 
Executive Director; Wesley Warren, Director of Programs; David 
Goldston, Director of Government Affairs; Sarah Gillman, Treasurer; 
Heather Taylor-Miesle, Action Fund Director; Melissa Harrison, 
Communications Director; Steve VanLandingham, Development Director; 
Emily Bischof, Operations Coordinator; Chelsea Phipps, Program 

Sierra Club Foundation 

Type: 501(c)(3) 508 

Total Assets: $98,974,748 

Board of Directors: Larry Keeshan, Chair; Marni McKinney, Vice Chair; Steven Barkenfeld, 

Vice Chair; Tim Ryan, Treasurer; Sanjay Ranchod, Secretary; Molly O. Ross, 
Officer at Large; Geeta Aiyer; Peter Cartwright; Allison Chin; Susan 
Heitman; Lynn Jurich; Juan Martinez; Michael Ortiz; Mike Richter; Dan 
Shugar; Doug Walker; Marc Weiss; Shirley Weese Young 509 
Executive Leadership: Peter Martin, Executive Director; Ginny Quick, Chief Financial Officer; 

Henry Holmes, Grants and Compliance Director; Brian Kavanagh, Senior 
Accountant; Jennie Palmer, Manager of Administration and Board 
Relations; Jessica Hulce, Grants and Compliance Manager; Naomi Reed, 
Bookkeeper; Ting Lee, Administrative Assistant. 510 
Party Affiliation: "The Sierra Club Foundation cannot engage in or support partisan political 
activity." 511 

Sierra Club 

Type: 501(c)(4) 512 



NRDC Action Fund, NRDC Action Fund Board of Directors, http://www.nrdcactionfund.org/nrdc-action-fund- 
board-of-directors/ 

508 The Sierra Club Foundation, FAQS, http://www.sierraclubfoundation.org/faqs (last visited July 28, 2014). 

509 The Sierra Club Foundation, Board of Directors, http://www.sierraclubfoundation.org/about-tscf/board-directors 
(last visited July 28, 2014). 

510 The Sierra Club Foundation, Staff, http://www.sierraclubfoundation.org/about-tscf/staff (last visited July 28, 
2014). 

511 The Sierra Club Foundation, Building a Better Democracy through Environmental Activism, 
http://www.sierraclubfoundation.org/node/100 (last visited July 28, 2014). 

512 Sierra Club, IRS Form 990 (2012). 



Total Assets: $79,578,841 513 

Board of Directors: David A. Scott, President, 2015; Spencer Black, Vice President, 2015; Lane 
E. Boldman, Secretary, 2015; Loren Blackford, Treasurer, 2017; Susana 
Reyes, Fifth Officer, 2016; Donna Buell, 2016; Michael Dorsey, 2017; Jim 
Dougherty, 2016; Charles Frank, 2016; Jessica Helm, 2017; Aaron Mair, 
2017; Robin Mann, 2016; Dean Wallraff, 2017; Liz Walsh, 2015; Chris 
Warshaw, 2015 514 

Executive Leadership: Michael Brune, Executive Director 515 

Membership Dues: When you become a member they require you to give a "gift" of a certain 
amount ($15 is suggested but you can give lower than that). After that they 
charge you $7.50 for the magazine and $1.00 for the newsletter. It is noted 
on the website that this amount is included in a members dues. Not tax- 
deductible. 516 

Party Affiliation: There is no mention of any partisan affiliation or nonpartisan affiliation. 517 

Union of Concerned Scientists 

Type: 501(c)(3) 518 

Total Assets: $8,195,448 519 

Board Members: James J. McCarthy, Chair; Peter A. Bradford, Vice-Chair; James S. Hoyte, 

Treasurer; Thomas H. Stone, Secretary; James A. Fay, Board Member Emeritus; 
Kurt Gottfried, Board Chair Emeritus; Richard L. Garwin; Andrew Gunther; 
Geoffrey Heal; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Mario J. Molina; Stuart L. Pimm; Lou 
Salkind; Adele Simmons; Nancy Stephens; Ellyn R. Weiss 520 
Executive Leadership: Kenneth Kimmell, President; Kathleen Rest, Executive Director; Peter 

Frumhoff, Director of Science & Policy; Alden Meyer, Director of 
Strategy & Policy; Suzanne Shaw, Director of Communications; Laurie 
Marden, Chief Development Officer; Cheryl Schaffer, Chief 
Administrative and Financial Officer 521 
Membership Dues: New members must give a gift of $5 or more (suggested $25). It is tax- 
deductible. 522 



513 Sierra Club IRS Form 990 (2012). 

514 Sierra Club, Board of Directors, http://www.sierraclub.org/board (last visited July 28, 2014). 

515 Sierra Club, About, http://www.sierraclub.org/about (last visited July 28, 2014). 

516 Sierra Club, Join the Sierra Club, 

https://secure.sierraclub.org/site/Donation2?idb=0&df_id=18021&18021. donation=forml&autologin=true&s_src- 
N10ZSCZZ01&s_subsrc=JRG (last visited July 28, 2014). 

517 Id. 

518 Union of Concerned Scientists, Ways to Give, http://www.ucsusa.org/about/ways_to_give/benefits-of- 
membership.html (last visited July 28, 2014). 

519 Union of Concerned Scientists, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

520 Union of Concerned Scientists, Board of Directors, http://www.ucsusa.org/about/staff/staff/board.html (last 
visited July 28, 2014). 

521 Union of Concerned Scientists, Leadership, http://www.ucsusa.org/about/staff/staff/ucs-leadership.html (last 
visited July 28, 2014). 

522 Union of Concerned Scientists, Become a Member, 

https://secure3.convio.net/ucs/ste utma=11885 

8381. 1975270860.1406300201. 1406300523. 14063 12806.3&__utmb=l 1885838 1.1. 10. 14063 12806&__utmc=l 1885 

8381 & utmx=& utmz=l 1 885838 1 . 1406300523. 2. 2.utmcsr=googlelutmccn=(organic)lutmcmd=organiclutmctr=( 

not%20provided)&__utmv=-&__utmk=50211046 (last visited July 28, 2014). 



Party Affiliation: Says it is a "reliable source for independent scientific analysis." It does not 
explicitly state that the nonprofit is nonpartisan. 523 



U.S. Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) Education Fund 

Type: 501(c)(3) 524 

Total Assets: $6,935,903 525 

Executive Leadership: Andre Delattre, Executive Director; Steve Blackledge, Deputy Director; 

Allison Cairo, Deputy Director; Ed Mierzwinski, Consumer Program 
Director; Michael Russo, Federal Program Director; Chris Lindstrom, 
Higher Education Program Director; Meghan Hess, Associate Federal 
Field Director; Naomi Roth, Field Director 526 
Party Affiliation: "United States Public Interest Research Group Education Fund, Inc. is a 
nonprofit, nonpartisan organization exempt from taxation under section 
501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code." 527 

U.S. Public Interest Research Group, Inc. (PIRG) 

Type: 501(c)(4) 528 

Total Assets: $5,434,433 529 

con 

Board Members: Douglas H. Phelps, President and Chairman 

Executive Leadership: Andre Delattre, Executive Director; Steve Blackledge, Deputy Director; 

Allison Cairo, Deputy Director 531 
Party Affiliation: "The United States Public Interest Research Group, Inc. is a nonprofit, 
nonpartisan organization." 532 



WildEarth Guardians 

Type: 501(c)(3) 533 
Total Assets: $1,840,797 



523 Id. 

524 U.S. PIRG Education Fund, About U.S. PIRG Education Fund - Our Mission, 
http://uspirgedfund.org/page/usf/about-us-pirg-education-fund (last visited July 28, 2014). 

525 U.S. PIRG Education Fund IRS Form 990 (201 1). 

526 U.S. PIRG Education Fund, Our Staff, http://uspirgedfund.org/staff?page=l (last visited July 28, 2014). 
527 U.S. PIRG, Contribute to the U.S. PIRG Education Fund, 

https://secure2.roisolutions.^ 

1. 1406216801. 1406216801. l&_utmb=1.4.10.1406216801&_utmc=l&_utmx=- 

&__utmz=l . 1406216801 . 1 . 1 .utmcsr=(direct)lutmccn^ 1 
(last visited July 28, 2014). 

528 U.S. Public Interest Research Group, IRS Form 990, 2012. 

529 U.S. PIRG IRS Form 990 (201 1). 

530 U.S. PIRG, U.S. PIRG Staff, http://www.uspirg.org/staff/xxp/douglas-h-phelps (last visited July 28, 2014). 

531 U.S. PIRG, Staff, http://www.uspirg.org/staff (last visited July 28, 2014). 
532 U.S. PIRG, Become a Member of U.S. PIRG, 
https://secure2.roisolutions^ 

72.1406212672.1406212672.1&_utmb=1.100.10.1406212672&_utmc=l&_utmx=- 

& utmz=l . 1406212672. 1 . 1 .utmcsr=googlelutmccn=(organic)lutmcmd=organiclutmctr=(not%20provided)& utm 

v=-&__utmk=232076063 (last visited July 28, 2014). 
533 WildEarth Guardians, Support Us - Donate and Join, 
https://secure3.convio.net/wg/site^ 
=1342&1342.donation=forml (last visited July 28, 2014). 



Board of Directors: Robin Smith, President; Peter Schoenburg, Vice President; Todd Ringler, 
Secretary; Shannon Larsen, Treasurer; Jess Alford, Director; Cathy Bailey, 
Director; Nat Cobb, Director; Marion Hourdequin, Director; Janet McHard, 
Director; Mimsi Milton, Director; Brett Paben, Director; Jon Spar, Director; 
Bill Syme, Director; David Will, Director 535 
Executive Leadership: John Horning, Executive Director; Carol Norton, Associate Director; 

Bryan Bird, Wild Places Program Director; Lori Colt, Communication 
Director; Bethany Cotton, Wildlife Program Director; Kevin Gaither- 
Banchoff, Development Director; Jim Matison, Restoration Director; Erik 
Molvar, Sagebrush Sea Campaign Director; Jeremy Nichols, Climate and 
Energy Program Director; Jen Pelz, Wild Rivers Program Director; Jodie 
Wheeler, Finance Director 
Membership Dues: $35/individual, $50/family 537 

Party Affiliation: No mention of any partisan or nonpartisan affiliation. 538 
350.org 

Type: 501(c)(3) 539 

Total Assets: $3, 127,221 540 

Board Members: Bill McKibben, President, Co-founder, and Board Chair; Jay Halfon, Treasurer; 

K.C. Golden, Secretary; Melina Laboucan Massimo; Naomi Klein; Jessy 
Tolkan 541 

Executive Leadership: May Boeve, Executive Director; Phil Aroneanu, U.S. Managing Director 

and NRDC Co-Founder; Samantha Bailey, Global Organizing Director; 
Will Bates, Global Campaigns Director and Co-Founder; Rikimah 
Glymph, Human Resources Director; Jamie Henn, Strategy and 
Communications Director and Co-Founder; Jason Kowalski, U.S. Policy 
Director; Matt Leonard, Director of Special Projects; Payal Parekh, 
Global Managing Director; Jon Warnow, Digital Director 542 

Membership Dues: No charge to join. Requests email, city, and country. 543 

Party Affiliation: Non-partisan 544 



350.org Action Fund 

Type: 501(c)(4) 545 
Total Assets: $331,289 



534 WildEarth Guardians, IRS Form 990 (2012). 

535 WildEarth Guardians, About Us - Board of Directors, 

http://www.wildearthguardians.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_board (last visited July 28, 2014). 

536 WildEarthGuardians, About Us - Staff, 

http://www.wildearthguardians.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_staff (last visited July 28, 2014). 

537 Id. 

538 WildEarth Guardians, About Us, http://www.wildearthguardians.org/site/PageServer ?pagename=about (last 
visited July 28, 2014). 

539 350.org, http://350.org/ (last visited July 28, 2014). 

540 350.org IRS Form 990 (201 1). 

541 350.org, About - Board of Directors, http://350.org/about/board (last visited July 28, 2014). 

542 350.org, About - Staff, http://350.org/about/team (last visited July 28, 2014). 

543 Id. 

544 350.org, Getting Political on 10/10/10, http://350.org/getting-political-101010 (last visited July 28, 2014). 

545 350 Action, Donate to 350 Action, https://act.350.org/donate/action (last visited July 28, 2014). 



Board Members: Betsy Taylor, President; Jessy Tolkan, Secretary; Bill McKibben, Treasurer 
Executive Leadership: May Boeve, Executive Director and Co-Founder; Phil Aroneanu, U.S. 

Campaign Director and Co-Founder; Jamie Henn, Communications 
Director and Co-Founder; Jason Kowalski, Policy Director; Jeremy 
Osborn, Operations Director and Co-Founder; Jon Warnow, Web 
Director and Co-Founder 548 



350.org Action Fund IRS Form 990 (201 1). 

350 Action, Board of Directors, http://350action.org/board-of-directors (last visited July 28, 2014). 
350 Action, Staff, http://350action.org/staff (last visited July 28, 2014).